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Full text of "Guidebook to Constructing Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment, Biology"

GUIDEBOOK TO CONSTRUCTING 



INEXPENSIVE SCIENCE TEACHING EQUIPMENT 



Volume I : Biology 



Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment Project 



Science Teaching Center 



University of Maryland, College Park 



U.S.A. 



(c) Copyright. The contents of this Guidebook are open to the public domain except 
for those items which have been taken directly (as opposed to adapted) from other 
sources, and which are identified within the text by the symbol (c) Permission to 
reproduce copyright items should be obtained directly from the relevant authors. 

June, 1972 



Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment Project 

Science Teaching Center 

University of Maryland 



Project Director and Administrator 
J, David Lockard 

Survey Team 

Mary Harbeck 
Maria Penny 



1968-72 



1968-70 
1968-70 



Guidebook Director 

Reginald F. Melton 



Writing, Drawing and Equipment Development Team 
Reginald Melton 
John Delaini 
Donald Urbancic 
Ruth Ann Butler 

Technical Assistants 
David Clark 
Chada Samba Siva Rao 



1970-72 

1970-72 
1970-72 
1970-71 
1971-72 

1970-72 
1970-71 



CONTENTS 

The Guidebook is presented in three volumes: 

Volume I, Biology 
Volume II, Chemistry 
Volume III, Physics 

The following table refers only to the contents of this 
volume, but the listing at the back of each volume provides an 
alphabetical index to all three volumes. 

References within the text normally indicate the volume, 
chapter and number of the item referred to (e.g., PHYS/V/A3) , 
but where a reference is to an item within the same volume, 
the reference indicates only the chapter and number of the 
item (e.g. , V/A3) . 



■11- 



Table of Contents 



Foreword 

Raw Materials and Tools 
I, MAGNIFIERS AND MICROSCOPES 

A. MAGNIFIERS 

Al . Water Filled Magnifier 

A2. Water Bulb Magnifying Glass 

A3. Illuminated Hand Magnifier 

B. MICROSCOPES 

Bl. Glass Stage Microscope 
B2 . Hand-Held Microscope 
B3. Match Box Microscope 
B4. Adjustable Microscope 

C. SUPPLEMENTARY APPARATUS 

CI. Glass Slide and Cover Slip 
C2 . Staining Vessel 
C3. Stain Bottle 
C4 . Hand Microtome 
II. DISSECTING APPARATUS 



A. DISSECTING APPARATUS 


Al 


Dissecting Needles 


A2 


Strapping Scalpel 


A3 


Razor Scalpel 


A4 


Scissors 


A5 


Forceps 


A6 


Dropper 


A7 


Dissecting Pan 


III. AQUAT 


IC COLLECTING APPARATUS 



A. NETS AND DREDGES 
Al. Dip Net 

A2. Hand Screen 
A3. Dredge 
A4. Plankton Net 
A5. Two-Man Seine 
A6. Lift Net 

B. AQUATIC TRAPS 
Bl. Piling Trap 
B2. Funnel Trap 



Page 
vi 

ix 

1 

2 
3 
7 

14 
19 
21 
24 

30 

31 

33 

35 

38 

39 

41 

43 

45 

48 

49 

51 

53 

54 
56 
60 
65 

68 

71 

73 
76 



-m- 



C. SUPPLEMENTARY AQUATIC MATERIALS 

CI. Bottom Sampler 82 

C2 . Grappling Hook 85 

C3. Grappling Bar 87 

C4. Water Glass 90 

IV. TERRESTRIAL COLLECTING APPARATUS 93 



A. INSECT COLLECTING APPARATUS 

Al. Butterfly Net 94 

A2 . Killing Jars 96 

A3. Relaxing Jar 98 

A4 . Insect Spreading Board 99 

A5 . Beating Sheet 101 

A6. Aspirator 103 

A7 . Night Flying Insect Collector 105 

B. SOIL ORGANISM COLLECTING APPARATUS 

Bl. Soil Organism Sieve 110 

B2 . Soil Insect Trap 112 

B3. Baermann Funnel 114 

B4. Berlese Funnel 117 

C. SMALL VERTEBRATE COLLECTING APPARATUS 

CI. Simple Box Trap 119 

C2. Potter Bird Trap 126 

C3. Snare 130 

C4. Reptile Hook 132 

D. PLANT COLLECTING APPARATUS 

Dl. Vasculum 136 

D3(l). Plant Press (Field Type) 140 

D2(2). Plant Press (Laboratory Type) 142 

AQUARIA AND TERRARIA 144 



A. CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION AQUARIA 

Al . Quickly Made Demonstration Aquarium 145 

A2 . Jug or Carboy Aquarium 146 

B. BREEDING AQUARIUM 

Bl. Breeding Aquarium 147 

C. TEMPORARY AQUARIUM 

CI. Plastic Bag Aquarium 148 



D. TERRARIA 

Dl . Simple Terrarium 151 

D2 . Glass Terrarium 153 

D3. Plant Growth Chamber 155 

VI. CAGES 158 



A. GLASS CAGES 

ai. Glass Jar Cage 159 

A2 . Jar Cage Shelf 161 

A3. Cockroach Cage 163 

A4 . Housefly Cage 165 

A5 . Cylinder Cage 167 

A6 . Jar Wotmery 168 

A7 . Jar Cage 169 

A8 . Box Wormery 171 

A9 . Ant Observation Cage 173 

A10. Glass Cage 176 

B. WOODEN CAGES 

Bl. Wooden Frame Cage 180 

B2 . Wire Cage 185 

C. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED CAGES 

CI. Vivarium 191 

C2. Egg Incubator 200 

C3. Thermostat 207 

VII. MICROBIAL GROWTH APPARATUS 213 
A. BASIC APPARATUS 

Al. Culture Flask 214 

A2. Sterilizer 215 

A3. Inoculating Needles 218 

A4 . Microorganism Incubator 219 

A5. Transfer Pipette 224 

A6 . Transfer Chamber 226 

VIII. PHYSIOLOGY MATERIALS 233 



KYMOGRAPH 

Al. Kymograph 234 

VOLUMETER 

Bl . Volumeter 244 

FERMENTATION TUBES 

CI. Balloon Fermentation Tube 247 

C2. Durham Fermentation Tube 248 

C3. Syringe Fermentation Tube 249 



D . MANOMETER 

Dl . Manometer 251 

E. CHROMATOGRAPHY APPARATUS 

El. Chromatographic Device 255 

IX. MULTIPURPOSE SYRINGES 257 



A. INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS 

Al. Diffusion Chamber 25a 

A2 . Anesthetizing Chamber 261 

A3. Enzymatic Reaction Chamber 263 

B. COLLECTION APPARATUS 

Bl. Plant Gas Collection Device 265 

B2 . Seedling Gas Collection Device 267 

C. REACTION CHAMBER 

CI. Carbon Dioxide Production Chamber 269 

D. RESPIROMETERS 

Dl(l). Respirometer 270 

Dl(2). Respirometer 273 

Bibliography 277 

Alphabetical Index 279 



FOREWORD 



History 

The Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment Project was initiated by Dr. J. David 
Lockard, and got underway under his direction in the summer of 1968. Originally entitled 
the Study of Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment Worldwide (IS-TEW or IS-Z Study), 
the Project was to (1) identify laboratory equipment considered essential for student 
investigations in introductory biology, chemistry and physics courses in developing 
countries; (2) improvise, wherever possible, equivalent inexpensive science teaching 
equipment; and (3) produce designs of this equipment in a Guidebook for use in develop- 
ing countries. Financial support was provided by the U.S. Agency for International 
Development through the National Science Foundation. 

The initial work of the Project was undertaken by Maria Penny and Mary Harbeck 
under the guidance of Dr. Lockard. Their major concern was the identification of 
equipment considered basic to the teaching of the sciences at an introductory level. 
An international survey was conducted, and a list of equipment to be made was compiled. 
A start was also made on the writing of guidelines (theoretical designs) for the 
construction of equipment. 

Work on the development of the Guidebook itself got underway in 1970, with the 
arrival of Reginald F. Melton to coordinate the work. Over 200 guidelines were completed 
during the year by Donald Urbancic (Biology) , Chada Samba Siva Rao and John Delaini 

(Chemistry), and Reginald Melton (Physics) . Full use was made of project materials from 
around the world which were available in the files of the International Clearinghouse on 
Science and Mathematics Curricular Developments, which is located in the Science 
Teaching Center of the University of Maryland. The guidelines were compiled into a 
draft edition of the Guidebook which was circulated in September, 1971, to some 80 
science educators around the world for their comments and advice. 

The work of constructing and developing equipment from the guidelines, with the 
subsequent production of detailed designs, began in a limited way in 1970, the major 
input at that time being in the field of chemistry by Chada Samba Siva Rao, who was 
with the project for an intensive two-month period. However, the main work of developing 
detailed designs from the guidelines was undertaken between 1971 and 1972 by John Delaini 
(Biology), Ruth Ann Butler (Chemistry) and Reginald Melton (Physics) . Technical 
assistance was given by student helpers,with a special contribution from David Clark, 
who was with the project for a period of 18 months. 



Thanks are due to those graduates, particularly Samuel Genova, Melvin Soboleski 
and Irven Spear, who undertook the development of specific items of equipment while 
studying at the Center on an Academic Year Institute program; to student helpers, 
especially Don Kallgren, Frank Cathell and Theodore Mannekin, who constructed the 
equipment; and to Dolores Aluise and Gail Kuehnle who typed the manuscripts. 

Last, but not least, special acknowledgement is due to those individuals, and 
organizations, around the world who responded so willingly to the questionnaires in 
1968 and to the draft edition of the Guidebook in 1971. 

The Guidebook 



The designs presented in the Guidebook are based on the premise that many students 
and teachers in developing countries will wish to make equipment for themselves . This 
does not mean that students and teachers are expected to produce all their own apparatus 
requirements. It is recognized that teachers have specific curricula to follow, and that 
"class hours" available for such work are very limited. It is also recognized that 
teachers, particularly those in developing countries, are not well paid, and often 
augment their salaries with supporting jobs, thus placing severe limits on the "out-of- 
class hours' that are available for apparatus production. 

However, in designing equipment for production by students and teachers, two factors 
have been kept in mind. One, project work in apparatus development can be extremely 
rewarding for students, bringing both students and teachers into close contact with the 
realities of science, and relating science and technology in the simplest of ways. Two, 
it is not difficult for cottage (or small scale) industries to adapt these designs to 
their own requirements. The Guidebook should therefore not only be of value to students 
and teachers, but also to cottage industries which may well be the major producers of 
equipment for schools. 

Although all the designs in the Guidebook have been tested under laboratory 
conditions in the University of Maryland, they have not been tested in school situ- 
ations nor produced and tested under local conditions in developing countries. It is 
therefore recommended that the designs should be treated primarily as limited resource 
materials to be subjected to trial and feedback. It is suggested that the first time 
that an item is constructed it should be made precisely as described in the Guidebook, 
since variations in the materials, or the dimensions of the materials, could alter the 
characteristics of the apparatus. However, once this item has been tested the producer 
is encouraged to make any number of modifications in the design, evaluating the new 
products against the original. 



Before producing new equipment in quantity, it is recommended that educators 
with experience in the field of science education should be involved in determining 
how best to make use of the Guidebook. They will wish to relate the apparatus to their 
own curriculum requirements, and, where necessary, prepare relevant descriptions of 
experiments which they recommend should be undertaken using the selected apparatus. 
They will want to subject the experiments and related equipment to trials in school 
situations. Only then will they consider large-scale production of apparatus from the 
designs in the Guidebook. At this stage educators will wish to control the quality of 
apparatus production, to train teachers to make the best use of the new apparatus, and 
to insure that adequate laboratory conditions are developed to permit full utilization 
of the apparatus. Too often in the past apparatus has sat unused on many a classroom 
shelf, simply because the teacher has been untrained in its usage, or the laboratory 
facilities have been inadequate, or because the apparatus available did not appear to 
fit the requirements of the existing curriculum. Such factors are best controlled by 
educators in the field of science education in each country. Clearly the science 
educator has a crucial role to play. 

Apparatus development, like any aspect of curriculum development, should be 
considered as a never ending process. This Guidebook is not presented as a finished 
product, but as a part of this continuing process. There is no doubt that the designs 
in this book could usefully be extended, descriptions of experiments utilizing the 
apparatus could be added, and the designs themselves could be improved. No extravagant 
claims are made concerning the Guidebook. It is simply hoped that it will contribute 
to the continuing process of development. 



TOOLS AND RAW MATERIALS 

The raw materials required to make specific items of equipment are indicated at 
the beqinninq of each item description. However, there are certain tools and materials 
which are useful in any equipment construction workshop, and these are listed below. 

Tools 

Chisels, Wood 

3, 6, 12, 24 mm 

(i.e., 1/8", 1/4", 1/2", 1") 

Cutters 

Bench Shears: 3 mm (1/8") capacity 

Glass Cutter 

Knife 

Razor Blades 

Scissors: 200 mm (8") 

Snips (Tinmans) , Straiqht: 200 n (8") 

Snips (Tinmans) , Curved: 200 mm (8") 

Taps and Dies: 3 to 12 mm (1/8" to 1/2") set 

Drills and Borers 

Cork Borer Set 

Countersink, 90 

Metal Drill Holder (Electrically Driven) , Capacity 6 mm (1/4") 

Metal Drills: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 mm 

( i 1/32" 1/16" 3/32JL J/8." 5/32", 3.16", 7/32", 1/4") set 

Wood Brace with Ratchet: 250 nm (10") 
Wood Auqer, Bits: 6, 12, 18, 24 nun 

(i.e., 1/4", 1/2", 3/4", 1") 

Files, Double Cut 

Flat: 100 mm, 200 mm (4", 8") 
Round: 100 ran, 200 n (4", 8") 
Trianqular: 100 mm (4") 

Hammers 

Ball Pein: 125, 250, (1/4, 1/2 lb) 
Claw 250 q (1/2 lb) 

Measurinq Aids 

Caliper, Inside 

Caliper, Outside 

Caliper, Vernier (may replace above two items) 

Dividers: 150 mm (6"), Toolmakers 

Meter, Electrical (Multipurpose - volts, ohms, amps, etc.) 

Meter Stick 

Protractor 

Scriber 



Measuring Aids (Continued) 

Set Square 

Square, Carpenter's: 300 mm (12") blade 

Spoke Shave: 18 mm (3/4") 

Wood Smoothing Plane 

Pliers 

Combination: 150 mm (6") 
Needle Nose: 150 mm (6") 
Side Cutting: 150 mm (6") 
Vise Grips 

Saws, Metal 

300 mm (12") blades 

Saws, Wood 

Back Saw: 200, 300 mm (8", 12") 
Coping Saw: 200 mm (8") 
Cross Cut: 600 mm (24") 
Hand Rip: 60 mm (24") 
Key Hole Saw: 200 mm (8") 

Screw Drivers 

100 mm (4"), with 2 and 3 u tips 
150 mm (6") , with 5 mm tip 
200 mm (8"), with 7 mm tip 

Vise 

Metal Bench Vise: 75 mm (3") 
Wood Bench Vise: 150 mm (6") 

Miscellaneous 

Asbestos Pads 

Goggles, Glass 

Oil Can: 1/2 liter (1 pint) 

Oil Stone, Double Faced 

Punch, Center 

Sandpaper and Carborundum Paper, Assorted grades 

Soldering Iron: 60 watts, 100 watts 



Raw Materials 



Adhesives 



All Purpose Cement (Elmers, Duco) 
Epoxy Resin & Hardener (Araldite) 
Rubber Cement (Rugy) 
Wood Glue (Weldwood) 
Cellophane Tape 
Plastic Tape 
Masking Tape 



Electrical Materials 

Bulbs with Holders: 1.2, 2.5, 6.2 volts 
Dry Cells: 1.5, 6 volts 

Electrical Wire: Cotton or Plastic covered 
Fuse Wire: Assorted 
Lamps: 50, 75, 100 watts 
*Magnet Wire: #20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34 
Nichrome Wire : Assorted 
Parallel Electrical Cording 
Plugs 
Switches 

Glass and Plastic 

Acrylic (Plastic) Sheets: 2 cm and 2.5 cm thick 

Plates, Glass 

Tubes, Glass: 3, 6 mm (1/8", 1/4") internal diameter 

Hardware 

Bolts and Nuts, Brass or Steel; 3 mm (1/8") diameter: 12, 24, 48 mm 

(1/2", 1", 2") lengths 
Nails: 12, 24mm (1/2", 1") lengths 
Screws, Eye 

Screws, Wood: 12, 18, 24, 26 mm (1/2", 3/4", 1", 1 1/2") lengths 
Thumbtacks 

Washers (Brass and Steel) : 6, 9 m (1/4", 5.16") diameter 
Wingnuts (Steel) : 5 mm (3/16") 

Lumber 

Boxwood (Packing Case Material) 

Hardboard: 6 mm (1/4") thick 

Kiln Dried Wood: 2.5 x 15 cm (1" x 6") cross section 

1.2 x 15 cm (1/2" x 6") cross section 
Plywood: 6, 12 mm (1/4", 1/2") thickness 
Wood Dowels: 6, 12 mm (1/4", 1/2") thickness 



* U.S. Standard Plate numbers are used in this book to indicate the gauge of 
different wires. Where wires are referenced against other numbering systems 
appropriate corrections should be make in determining the gauges of materials required. 
The following comparison of gauges may be of interest: 



Standard 



Diameter of #20 Wire 



Brown & Sharp 

Birmingham or Stubs 

Washburn & Moen 

Imperial or British Standard 

Stubs' Steel 

U. S. Standard Plate 






08118 





089 





0884 





0914 





409 





09525 



Metal Sheets 

Aluminum: 0.2, 0.4mm (1/100", 1/64") thickness . 
Brass: 0.4, 0.8mm (1/64", 1/32") thickness . 
Galvanized Iron : 0.4 mm ( 1/64" J thickness . 
Lead: . 1 mm (1/250") thickness. 
Spring Steel, Packing Case Bands 

Metal Tubes: 

Aluminum, Brass Copper: 6, 12 mm (1/4", 1/2") internal diameter . 

Metal Wires 

Aluminum: 3 mm (1/8") diameter 

Coathanger: 2 mm(l/16") diameter 
*Copper: #2 24 

Galvanized Iron: 2 mm (1/16") diameter 
*Steel: #20, 26, 30. 

Paint Materials 

Paint Brushes 
Paint Thinner 
Varnish 
Wood Filler 

Miscellaneous 

Aluminum Foil 

Cardboard Sheeting 

Containers (Plastic or Glass) 

Corks (Rubber or Cork) 

Grease 

Hinges: Assorted 

Machine Oil 

Marbles 

Mesh (Cotton, Nylon, Wire) 

Modelling Clay (Plasticene) 

Paper Clips 

Pens: Felt (Marking Pens) 

Pins and Needles 

Rubber Bands 

Soldering Lead 

Soldering Paste 

Spools 

Steel Wool 

Straws 

String (Cord, Cotton, Nylon) 

Styrofoam 

Syringes: Assorted 

Wax (Paraffin) 



*See footnote on previous page. 



I. MAGNIFIERS AND MICROSCOPES 

A. MAGNIFIERS 

Magnifiers are used for low power magnification. The three included here can 
be employed wherever it is desirable to see a little more detail than is obtain- 
able with the naked eye. 

B. MICROSCOPES 



Where high power magnification is needed, microscopes can be used. The ones 
in this section can, for the most part, be adapted to use water drop, glass bead, 
or penlight bulb lenses. Magnifications up to around 60X - 80X may be gotten 
using these microscopes . All are designed for use with freshly and/or permanently 
mounted glass slides. 

C. SUPPLEMENTARY APPARATUS 



These items are essential for preparing the slides to be viewed with the 
microscopes . 



A. MAGNIFIERS 



Al. Water Filled Magnifier 




(1) Flask 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Flask 

b. Construction 

(1) Flask 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Spherical Body 
Flask (A) 



Dimensions 
50-500 ml 



Simply fill the flask (A) 
with clear water up to the 
neck. 



c. Notes 

(i) A 250 ml flask (about 7.5 cm in diameter) will magnify approximately 
the same as a double convex magnifying glass 4 cm in diameter and 0.7 cm in 
thickness . 

(ii) Smaller diameter flasks appear to magnify more than larger diameter ones. 



A2 . Water Bulb Magnifying Glass 




(1) Water Bulb Magnifying Glass 



a. Materials Required 

Components 

(1) Water Bulb 

Magnifying Glass 

b. Construction 



Qu Items Required 
1 Glass Tubing (A) 



(1) Water Bulb 

Magnifying Glass 



Cd 



O 






Dimensions 

. 3 cm diameter, 

10-13 cm long 



Use a Bunsen Burner or gas 
burner and fuel system 
(CHEM/II/C1 and 2) as a heat 
source. Follow the glass- 
blowing instructions (CHEM/I/D6) 
and blow at one end of the 
glass tube (A) a bulb of 
about 0.8 cm diameter. 

Provide a glass or cup of 
water and a wooden clothespin, 
pinch clamp (CHEM/IV/A4) or a 
few square centimeters of 
cloth to serve as a holder. 



Rotate the bulb near, but not 
in, the flame to expand the 
air in the bulb. 



^Adapted from James E. Hammesfahr and Claire L. Strong, Creative Glassblowing, 



(San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1964), pp 108-9. 




Water 



After a few seconds of 
heating, quickly invert the 
piece and put the open end 
into the water. Allow the 
piece to remain in the water 
a few seconds. The air in the 
bulb contracts and water is 
drawn up into the tube. 




Remove the piece from the 
water and hold it, bulb down, 
in one hand near the open end 
of the tube. Lightly flick 
the bulb with the index finger 
of the other hand. Continue 
flicking until the water has 
gone from the tube into the 
bulb. 




Next, grasp the tube with the 
clothespin, pinch clamp, or 
folded cloth, and again hold 
the bulb close to the flame 
until the water boils. Point 
the open end of the tube away 
from yourself and anyone else. 




Water 



Heat the bulb while steam 
escapes from the tube for about 
5 seconds. Then quickly invert 
the tip of the tube into the 
water. Allow the tube to 
remain in the water until the 
bulb is full, or nearly full, 
of water. If after a few 
minutes, the bulb has not 
filled with water, repeat the 
heating and filling process. 



-Air Bubble 



Remove the piece from the 
water and invert it so that 
any air remaining in the 

bulb can enter the tube. 
Flick the bulb, as before, and 
the bubble will rise to the 
open end of the tube. 




Holding the bulb with the 
tube upright, heat the end of 
the tube in the hottest part 
of the flame to seal the tip. 
As the tip seals, the expanding 
air of the trapped bubble 
blows a tiny bulb at the end 
of the tube. 



Water 



c .Notes 

(i) The first heatiing of the bulb expands the air, which, when it contracts, 
draws a small amount of water into the bulb. Converting this water into 
steam expels all the air and causes the bulb to fill completely with water as 
the steam condenses . 



(ii) When this water-filled bulb is held about 0.5 cm from an object, the 
object will appear distorted around the edges, but clear and greatly enlarged 
at the center of the bulb. 



A3. Illuminated Hand Magnifier 



a. Materials Required 
Component s 
(1) Eyepiece 



Qu 

: 
: 
: 



2) Adaptor 




(1) Eyepiece 



3) Barrel 



Items Required 
Double Convex Lens (A) 
Single Convex Lens (B) 
Cardboard Tube (C) 



1 Cardboard Tube (D) 



Dimensions 

2.5 cm diameter 

2 . 5 cm diameter 

5 cm long, 2 . 5 cm 
inside diameter 

5 cm long, 2 . 8 cm 
inside diameter 



(2) Adaptor 



1 Cardboard Tube (E) 



5 cm long, 3 . 5 cm 
inside diameter 



(3) Barrel 



1 1.5 Volt Penlight 

Bulb (F) 

1 Tin Sheet (G) 



2 Electrical Wire (H) 



2 . 2 cm long, 1 . 
cm diameter 

3.7 diameter, 0.05 
cm thick 

10 cm long, #26 gauge 
(about 0.05 cm in 
diameter); strip 
insulation from 1 cm 
of each end 



2 1.5 Volt Dry Cells (I) 

1 Steel Bolt (J) 

1 Steel Nut (K) 

1 Steel Strapping (L) 

1 Cardboard (M) 

1 Cardboard Tube (N) 



3.2 cm diameter 
5 . 7 cm long 

2 cm long, . 5 cm 
diameter 

. 5 cm inside 
diameter 

12.5 cm x 1.2 cm x 
0.05 cm 

3 . 5 diameter 

15 cm long, 3.2 cm 
inside diameter 



b. Construction 



(1) Eyepiece 



-( 3.75 *• 


♦I. 5* 


1.5 

Jl 




1 


2.5 

I 


' 


<_ — 


9.0 


H 





Tube (D) 




Cross Section of 
Tube (D) 



If a cardboard tube cannot be 
found of the required size, 
one can easily be made from 
a piece of cardboard cut as 
shown. Roll the cardboard into 
a tube (D) 5 cm long and 
position the single convex 
lens (B) in place with the 
edge on the dotted line. The 
lens can be held in place with 
rubber cement or similar 
flexible adhesive while the 
tube (D) is held together with 
masking tape. Be certain the 
flat side of the lens faces 
the front (notched) end of 
the tube. 




Tube (C) 




Cross Section of 
Tube (C) 



(D) 



(C) 



^ ^^ -u-n r rrr- , -CT rl 



The second tube (C) may be 
made the same way as the 
first if a manufactured 
cardboard tube of the correct 
size cannot be found. Roll 
the cardboard into a tube and 
position the double convex 
lens (A) at one end with 
rubber cement . Fasten the 
tube securely with masking 
tape. This tube (C) should 
fit rather snugly inside 
tube (D) , but still be able 
to slide easily back and forth. 



Cross Section 



(2) Adaptor 



T 

3 

1_ 




12 



JL 



The adaptor can be made from 
a cardboard tube (E) by 
notching one end so that it 
will interlock with the eye- 
piece. The adaptor and eye- 
piece can then be taped with 
masking tape. Alternatively, 



Adaptor Pattern 



-10- 



Notch 




Eyepiece 



Adaptor (E) 



the pattern for the adaptor 
can be cut from cardboard, 
rolled into a cylinder, and 
taped. Even if the two tubes 
don't "mesh" exactly, they 
can be taped well enough to 
overcome inaccuracies . 

When binding the eyepiece and 
adaptor together with tape, 
be sure that the notch in the 
eyepiece tube (D) is directly 
over the adaptor tube 
opening. 



(3) Barrel 




If a tube (N) of the correct 
size is available, simply 
punch a small hole (0.2 cm) 
about 6 cm from one end of 
the tube. Otherwise, a tube 
can be fashioned from a piece 
of cardboard of the indicated 
dimensions. Roll and tape 
it so that it is 15 cm long 
and has a 3.2 cm inside 
diameter. 



Tube (N) 



-11- 



Bolt (J) 
Nut (K) 




Cardboard (M) 




Side View 



Wire (H) 
Cardboard (M) 



To seal off the end of tube 
(N) use the circular piece 
of cardboard (M) . First, 
punch a hole in the center of 
the cardboard disc, and insert 
the short steel bolt (J) . 
Fasten one of the pieces of 
electrical wire (H) in place 

with the nut (K). Pull the 
free end of the wire through 
the hole in the tube (N) and 

glue the disc (M) in place 
to seal off one end of the 
tube . 



' » * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 



Cross Section of 
Tube (N) 




0.7 cm Hole 



Before Folding 



Slits 



<^P 



After Folding 



Use the disc of tin sheeting 
(G) to make a reflector. 
First, drill a hole in the 
center of the disc of a 
diameter such that the pen- 
light bulb (F) will screw into 
it securely (approximately 
0.7 cm diameter) . Next, cut 
slits in the disc (G) as 
shown. Fold the resulting 
flaps up slightly so that 



Reflector (G) 



-12- 




Penlight Bulb (F) 



Reflector (G) 




the reflector approximates 
a cone in appearance. 

Next, screw the bulb (F) in 
place, and solder one end of 
the second piece of wire (H) 
to the back of the reflector. 
Pull the free end of the wire 
through the hole in the 
barrel tube (N) and leave the 
reflector assembly loose 
temporarily . 



Cross Section 



Switch (L) 



The switch is made from the 
piece of steel strapping (L) 
Give it a slight bend in 
the middle. 



Coiled Ends 




Coil 



Switch (L 




Coil the free end of the wire 
which comes from the sealed 
end of the barrel. Do like- 
wise for the other wire.. 

Tape the switch to the barrel 
making certain that one end 
of the switch is taped 
directly over one of the wire 
coils and that the second 
coil is directly under the 
bent portion of the switch 
but not touching it. In 



To Be Taped 



Tape 



Side Views 



-13- 




Cross Section of Completed 
Barrel 



other words, when the switch 
is depressed, contact will 
be made with the wire coil 
and the circuit from the bolt 
to the bulb will be completed. 

Finally, insert two dry cells 
(I) into the barrel and push 
the reflector assembly into 
place. 

The bulb must make contact 
with the battery. The 
reflector assembly should 
hold in place by tension, and 
require no further fastening. 
When the switch is pressed, 
the light should go on. 



c. Notes 



To complete the illuminated 
hand magnifier, insert the 
barrel into the adaptor. 



(i) The illuminated hand magnifier must be held directly over the object 
to be viewed. The light serves to concentrate the illumination of the object 
while focusing is accomplished by moving the eyepiece tube (C) up and down 
in relation to the second tube (D) . 

(ii) This magnifier is excellent for observing detail on such items as 
insect parts, plant surface features, crystals, etc. 

(iii) Obviously, any variation in the lens diameter as given here will 
necessitate changes in the dimensions of the item. If a lens is slightly 
smaller than the cylinder into which it must be fit, it can be built up by 
wrapping thin pieces of tape around its edge until it will fit snugly. 



-14- 



MICROSCOPES 



Bl. Glass Stage Microscope 



(1) Glass Plate 



(2) Lens Mount 




(3) Mirror 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Glass Plate 

(2) Lens Mount 

(3) Mirror 



q u Items Required 

1 Window Glass (A) 

1 Metal Strip (B) 

1 Mirror Glass (C) 



Dimensions 

20 cm x 10 cm (at 
least) 

12 cm x 3 cm x 0.1 cm 

Approximately 5 cm 
x 5 cm 



b. Construction 
(1) Glass Plate 



Rest the qlass plate (A) on 
two books or other stable 
supports. The glass plate 
serves as the microscope 
stage. 



-15- 



(2) Lens Mount 




•4.5-— r- 3 -^H— 4.5 
Metal Strip 



Drill a hole through the 
center of the lens mount (B) 
The diameter of the hole 
will depend on the size and 
type of lens used [see Notes 
(ii) , (iii) , (iv) ] . Bend 
the end of the lens mount 
down at a slight angle. 



(3) Mirror 



c. Notes 



Use the mirror (C) to reflect 
enough light through the 
specimen to permit it to be 
seen well. If a mirror is 
not available, use polished 
metal or other reflective 
material . 



(i) Operating the glass stage microscope is exceptionally easy. Simply 
place the glass slide containing the specimen under the lens mount and reflect 
light through the specimen with the mirror. Focusing is accomplished by push- 
ing on the lens mount so that the lens moves closer to or further from the 
specimen . 

(ii) For maximum success in making water drop lenses, the hole in the lens 
mount must be properly prepared. First of all, this means that the hole should 
be as nearly circular as possible. A drill will yield best results although 
holes can be punched with nails, punches, or other sharp implements. Addi- 
tionally, the edge of the hole should be made smooth and free from burrs. 
This can be done with a file or tool made especially for this purpose. The 
optimum size for the hole was found to be approximately 2.5 mm - 3.5 mm in 
diameter. 

Once the hole has been made, the area around the hole should be heated 
and candle wax melted onto both sides of the lens mount around the hole. Be 
certain that no wax gets into the hole. This coating of wax prevents the 



-16- 



water drop from spreading out and deforming. 

When the hole has been prepared, the water drop lens is made simply by 
carefully placing a drop of water in the middle of the hole so that it is 
suspended from the edge. The drop is most easily handled with a dropper. 
It was found that a water drop with a slightly flattened side provided the 
best image while a drop flattened on both sides was poor. 



Excellent 



ZZl 



xjt 



Good 



Poor 



(iii) The object in making a glass bead lens is to form as nearly spherical 
and clear a bead as possible. This is most easily done if soft glass rods 
are available. If harder glass is used, extremely hot flames are needed to 
work it . 

First, evenly heat a portion of the glass rod in a flame until it 
softens. When it is soft, pull the ends out until a long filament is formed 
and continue to pull until the filament breaks. Using the longer of the two 
filaments, heat the tip until a bead begins to form. Turning the filament 
so that the bead forms evenly, continue to heat the bead until it reaches 
the desired size. Allow the bead to cool and then break it off along with 
a portion of the stem. 




Heating the 
Rod 



Drawing Out 
the Filament 



Beginning 
the Bead 



Completing 
the Bead 



c=0 



Bead 
with Stem 



Beads can be made from approximately 2 . mm to 5 . mm in diameter, 
although those from 2.5 mm - 4.0 mm work best. Before mounting the bead on 
the lens mount, be certain that the hole in the mount is slightly s maller i n 



-17- 



diameter than the bead. This is extremely important. The bead can then be 
glued or held in place by a rubber band (see diagram) . 



Glue 




Side Views 



e^Sfr 



K 



Rubber 
Band 



As the diagrams show, the bead stem should be kept on the underside 
of the lens mount. 

Although glass beads can be made from glass tubing, it is almost 
impossible to prevent air bubbles from forming in the bead which cause great 
distortion of the image. Therefore, use solid glass rods, if possible. 

(iv) Penliqht bulb lenses are made from the penlight bulbs used in small, 
fountain-pen sized flashlights (battery operated torches) . Those commercially 
available in the United States are approximately 2 cm long and 11cm in 
diameter at the widest point. The portion used as a microscope lens is the 
thickened glass at the tip of the bulb (see diagram) . 




Remove Here 



The lens can be removed from the bulb by scratching the glass portion 
of the bulb close to the metal part. This avoids scratching the tip of the 
bulb itself, and is best accomplished with a small, triangular file. Once 
the whole glass bulb has been separated from the metal part, the lens will 
break off quite readily; in fact, it may fly off and be damaged unless caution 
is observed. 

The lens may be mounted to the lens mount merely by drilling a hole 
the same diameter (or slightly smaller) as the lens. Then, apply a flexible 
glue (e.g., rubber cement) around the edge of the hole and set the lens In 
place (see diagram) . Allow the glue to set before using the microscope. 



Lens Mount 




/ Glue 



Q-///////-77 ; — 222ZZ ZZZ2 ZZ 

Cross Section 

The penlight bulb lens appears to work best when mounted rounded side 
up as shown in the diagram. 

(v) Because all the microscopes described here are single lens types 
with small diameter lenses, the focal length is extremely small, which means 
that the lens must be close to the object viewed and also, the eye must be 
kept very close to the lens. This tends to cause a strain on the eye if the 
microscope is to be used for an extended period of time. In addition, it 
means that the depth of field is extremely limited, requiring frequent 
adjustments to focus. 

(vi) Magnification power for the different lenses is difficult to determine, 
but it appears that water drops and glass beads of the same diameter have 
the same power of magnification. Drops or beads with diameters of 2.0 mm to 
4.0 mm give magnifications of approximately 40X- 60X to 20X - 30X with 
smaller diameter beads yielding larger magnifications. The penlight bulb 
lens is approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, and gives magnification 
of about 50X - 70X. With all lenses, the portion of the field in focus is 
rather small. 

(vii) Care should be taken to keep the lenses (except water drop) clean 
with tissues. Also, slides, mirrors, etc., should be kept as dust free as 
possible. 

(viii) The best material for the lens holder seems to be aluminum sheeting 
about . 5 mm thick. Other types of stiff, flexible metal sheeting also work 
well. Cardboard or strong paper can be used, but yields poor results. 

(ix) Light to illuminate the specimen should be reflected through the 
microscope with a mirror or other shiny surface. A strong light source is 
required with sunlight working as well as any. 



-19- 



B2 . Hand-Held Microscope 



Slide 
(Not Part of 
Microscope) 




1) Lens Mount 



Rubber Band 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Lens Mount 

(2) Rubber Band 

b. Construction 

(1) Lens Mount 



Qu Items Required 
1 Metal Strip (A) 

1 Rubber Band (B) 



Dimensions 

8 cm x 2.5 cm x 
0.1 cm 



Drill a hole in the metal 
strip (A) . The position of 
the hole will depend upon 
where on the slide the 
specimen has been mounted. 

The dimensions given here are 
for a lens mount to be used 
with a standard 7.5 cm x 
2.5 cm (3 inches x 1 inch) 
glass slide. 



-20- 



(2) Rubber Band 



Wind the rubber band (8) 
around the slide and lens 
mount (A) to hold the two 
together so they don't slip. 
Be certain to position the 
lens directly over the 
specimen or portion of 
specimen to be viewed. Take 
care in moving the lens 
mount that the edge does not 
cut the rubber band. 



c. Notes 



(i) This simple microscope works well with either glass bead or pen light 
bulb lenses [see I/Bl, Notes (iii) and (iv) ] . Using it with a water 
drop lens is quite difficult in that it is di 'fficult to prevent the watfer 
from touching the slide. In addition, this microscope works best when held 
vertically rather than horizontally as is necessary with the water drop. 

(ii) See the foil owing diagrams for positioning the glass bead and penlight 
bulb lenses on the lens mount . 




Penlight Bulb 



Lens Mount (A) 



Glass Slide 




Glass Beac 



(iii) This mimicroscope should be used primarily with permanently prepared 
slides as opposed to fresh mounts. Focusing is achieved simply by holding 
the slide with one hand and moving the lens mount back and forth with the 
other . 



B3. Match Box Microscope * 



-21- 




(3) Lens Holder 



(2) Stage 



(1) Body 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Body 

(2) Stage 



(3) Lens Holder 



Qu Items Required 

1 Match Box Cover (A) 

1 Match Box Drawer (I 

1 Metal Strip (C) 
1 Aluminum Strip (D) 



Dimensions 

5 cm x 3.5 cm x 
1 . 5 cm 

5 cm x 3.5 cm x 

Lb cm 

3 cm x 1 cm x 0.1 cm 

7 . 5 cm x 2.5 cm x 

. 1 cm 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 




With a razor blade, make two 
slits in the back of the 
match box cover (A) . These 
slits need to be slightly 
wider than the width of the 
lens holder (2.5 cm) . 



*Adapted from African Primary Science Program, Making Things Look Bigger, 
(Nairobi, Kenya: Curriculum Development and Research Center, 1967), pp 24-25. 



-22- 



(2) Stage 




y 



]/ 



Slit 




Metal 
/ Strip (C) 



Cut out one end of the match 
box drawer (B) so that 
portions of the end . 5 cm 
wide are left on either side. 
At the same end cf the drawer, 
make a slit about 1 cm wide 
with a razor blade. Insert 
the metal strip (C) into 
this slit and glue it in 
place. Use this strip to 
move the stage up and down 
when focusing. 



(3) Lens Holder 




\+- 2.5- 



Lens 
Holder (D) 



Cover (A) 



Drill a hole in one end of 
the aluminum strip (D) , and 
bend it at right angles. If 
a drill is not available, 
punch a hole in the metal 
with a nail. Insert the 
metal strip through the slits 
in the back of the match box 
cover (A) to insure that it 
will be held in place securely. 
Then, remove the lens holder, 
slide the stage into the 
body, and replace the lens 
holder. The microscope is 
now ready for use. 



-23- 



c. notes 

(i) To use this microscope, place the slide or specimen on the stage 
directly under the lens. Focusing is accomplished by moving the stage up 
and down as the lens holder remains stationary. As with all single lens 
microscopes, the eye must be kept quite close to the lens in order to see 
the image. 

(ii) See I/Bl, Notes (ii), (iii), and (iv) for complete instructions in 
adapting the lens holder to use either water drop, glass bead, or penlight 
bulb lenses . 

(iii) With an item this small, it is found that there is some difficulty 
in keeping a glass slide on the stage, especially when the stage must be 
moved in focusing. 

(iv) Since it is difficult to get sufficient light through the specimen, 
it is suggested that the inside of the match box drawer be lined with light 
colored paper or metal foil to increase reflected light. 

(v) This microscope was found to be good for inspecting such items as 
coins, newsprint, insect wings, crystals, etc. 



-24- 



B4_. Adjustable Microscope 



(3) Lens Mount 



(2) Lens Mount 
Holder 




(4) Adjustment 
Knob 



(5) Mirror 



(1 ) Base and 

Stage Assembly 



a. Materials Required 

Component s 

(1) Base and Stage 
As sembly 



Qu Items Requi red 

1 Wood (A) 

2 Wood (B) 

1 Nut (C) 



Dimensions 

12 cm x 8 cm x 

1 . 5 cm 

6 cm x 8 cm x 1 . 5 cm 

. 5 cm internal 
diameter 



(2) Lens Mount 
Holder 



Wood (D) 



Bolt (E) 



2 . 5 cm x 8 cm x 

1 .5 cm 

0.5 cm diameter, 

6 cm long 



-25- 



(3) Lens Mount 



(4) Adjustment Knob 



(5) Mirror 



Wing Nut (F) 

Nuts (G) 

Wood (ii) 

Aluminum Sheet (I) 
Wood Spool (J) 

Bolt (K) 

Nut (L) 

Mirror Glass (M) 

Wood (N) 

Metal Sheet (0) 

Nail (P) 

Tack (Q) 



b. Construction 



(1) Base and Stage Assembly 




Nut (C) Glued 
Over Hole 



0.5 cm internal 
diameter 

0.5 cm internal 
diameter 

10 cm x 3.5 cm x 

. 5 cm 

9 cm x 2 cm x . 1 cm 

3 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

0.5 cm diameter, 
6 cm long 

0.5 cm internal 
diameter 

3 cm x 3 cm 

3 cm x 3 cm x . 5 cm 

8 cm x 2 cm x 
0.0 5 cm 

5 cm long, 0.2 cm 
diameter 

1 cm long 

Cut a notch 3 cm square in 
one piece of wood (B) to 
make the stage. In this same 
piece, drill a hole through 
the wood. It should be 
centered between the edge of 
the notch and the edge of the 
stage. Make this hole slightly 
smaller in diameter than the 
bolt (K) used to make the 
adjustment knob. Place the 
nut (C) over the hole in the 
wood. Give it a sharp blow 
with a hammer so that it 
forms an indentation in the 



-26- 



Upright (A) 




wood. Remove the nut, then 
glue it back in place taking 
care not to get glue in the 
hole or in the threads of 
the nut. It is best to allow 
the nut to dry with the bolt 
threaded through both it and 
the hole to assure proper 
alignment. Nail or screw 
this piece, the stage (B) , 
to the upright (A) . Likewise, 
nail or screw the base (B) 
to the upright. 



Base and Stage 

Assembly 



(2) Lens Mount Holder 




Drill Hole 



0.6 



Wood (D) 



Cut a notch 0.6 cm deep and 
4 cm wide in the piece of 

wood (D) . Drill a hole in 
the center of the notch. 
This hole should be slightly 
smaller than the bolt (E) 

used to hold the lens mount 

in place. 

Screw the wing nut (F) onto 
the bolt (E) and run it to 
the end of the bolt. Use one 
nut (G) to hold the wing nut 
tight to the end of the bolt. 
Place the other nut (G) over 
the hole in the piece of wood 
(D) and strike it hard with 
a hammer, taking care not to 
split the wood. Remove the 



-27- 



Lens Mount Holder 



Bolt (E 



Wing 
Nut (F) 




Nuts (G 



Base and Stage 
Assembly 



nut from the impression in 
the wood thus formed, and 
place a drop of strong glue 
in the impression and replace 
the nut. Be sure not to 
get glue in the threads of 
the nut or in the hole 
(this may be avoided by 
allowing the nut to dry with 
the bolt run all the way 
through the hole) . Finally, 
glue, nail or screw the 
lens mount holder to the 
base and stage assembly. 



(3) Lens Mount 




Metal Sheet (I) 



Make a slit in the end of 
the piece of wood (H) , with 
a saw. This slit should be 
about 1 cm deep and slightly 
wider than the thickness 
of the metal sheet (I) 
used. 



Wood (H) 



-28- 




Lens Mount 



(4) Adjustment Knob 



c 




Spool (J) Nut(L) 



Jolt (K) 



Side v±et 



Bend the aluminum sheet (I) 
to a right angle 1 cm from 
its end. Drill a hole 
3 . 5 cm from the bend and 
centered. The diameter of 
this hole will depend upon 
the size of the water drop 
desired, the size of the 
glass bead used, or the 
size of the penlight bulb 
lens. [See I/Bl, Notes (ii) , 
(iii) , and (iv) for instruc- 
tion in making and using 
such lenses . ] Glue the 
aluminum sheet (I) to the 
piece of wood (H) . 

Run the bolt (K) through 
the hole in the wooden 
spool (J) . Secure the spool 
tightly in place with the 
nut (L) . Screw the end of 
the bolt through the hole 
and nut in the base and 
stage assembly. 



(5) Mirror 



Mirror (M) 



wood (N 



Nail (P) 



X 




Cut the metal sheet (0) 
and drill two holes the same 
diameter as the nail (P) 
used. Bend the ends up at 
right angles along the dotted 
lines. Drill a hole through 
the wood (N) which is about 
the same diameter as the nail, 



-29- 



2 ^l 



K 2 



>-5s — *-k-3^ — >r<— 2.5 

Metal Strip (0) 




Insert the nail (P) through 
this hole and glue it in 
place. Glue the mirror (M) 
to the wood. Nail or screw 
the metal strip into posi- 
tion on the base directly 
under the notch in the stage. 
Insert both ends of the 
nail through the holes in the 
metal strip. There should 
be enough friction to keep 
the mirror at the desired 
angle . 



Completed Mirror 



c . Notes 

(i) The slide containing the specimen to be observed is placed over the 
hole in the stage. Light is reflected through the specimen and lens by 
means of the mirror. Coarse adjustment is obtained by varying the position 
of the lens mount with the lens mount holder bolt. Fine adjustment is attained 
by turning the adjustment knob so that it moves the metal portion of the lens 
mount up and down. 

(ii) This microscope may be used with any of the three types of lenses : 
water drop, glass bead, or penlight bulb lens. See ~I/B1, Notes (ii), 
(iii), and (iv) for details in mounting each type lens on the lens mount. 

(iii) Light is reflected through the lens by use of the mirror. The mirror 
need not be a real glass mirror - any smooth, shiny surface (e.g., polished 
metal) is acceptable. The source of light may be a bulb, room light, or 
skylight, with skylight proving most satisfactory. 



-30- 



C. SUPPLEMENTARY APPARATUS 



CI. Glass Slide and Cover Slip 





(1) Glass Slide 



(2) 



Cover Slit 



a. Materials Require d 
Components 

(1) Glass Slide 

(2) Cover Slip 

b. Construction 



(1) Glass Slides 



(2) Cover Slip 



c. notes 



Qu 

1 



Items Required 
Glass Plate (A) 

Transparent Plastic (B) 



Dimensions 

7 . 5 cm x 2 . 5 cm x 
0.2 cm 

2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 
0.05 cm 



Glass slides may be hand 
cut from plate qlass (A) , 
but this is tedious and time 
consuminq. 

Cover slips can be cut from 
stiff transparent plastic 
sheets (B) with scissors. 



(i) Good quality slides may be purchased almost as inexpensively as they 
can be handmade, or they may be obtained for free from hospital blood laboratories 
as they are often discarded after use. 

(ii) Consult a good general biology source book for information on preparing 
either fresh or permanently mounted slides. 



C2. Staining Vessel 



-31- 




(2) Rack 



(1) Can 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Can 

(2) Rack 

b. Construction 

(1) Can 



(2) Rack 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Tin Can (A) 

1 Wood (B) 




Dimensions 

8 cm high, 8 cm 
diameter 

8 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 



The diameter of the can (A) 
may be somewhat larger than 
8 cm (it should not be much 
less) , and the height of 
the can should be about the 
same as the length of the 
slides used. 

Cut notches in the wood (B) 
about 1 cm deep and just 
slightly wider than the 
slides used. Paint the wood 
with a sealant (e.g., varnish, 
shellac) to prevent the 
stain from soaking into it. 
Push the rack down into the 



-32- 



Slots 




Can (A) 



Rack 



Top View 



bottom of the can (A) , 
notches up. The rack holds 
the slides upright and 
prevents them from touching 
each other. Always make 
the length of the rack equal 
to the diameter of the can 
to insure that it will fit 
tightly in the bottom of 
the can. 



c . Notes 

(i) Staining vessels are necessary when preparing slides for microscopic 
inspection. Consult a good standard biology source book for instruction in 
preparing slides and stains. 



-33- 



C3. Stain Bottle 



(1) Bottle 





2 ) Dropper 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Bottle 

(2) Dropper 



b. Construction 



(1) Bottle 



(2) Dropper 



Q u I tems Required 
Pill Bottle (A) 

Glass Tube (B) 
Rubber Tube (C) 
One-hole Cork Stopper (D) 
Wire (E) 



Dimensions 

25-50 ml capacity 

12 cm long, 0.75 
cm diameter 

4 cm long, 1 . cm 
diameter 

To fit mouth of 
pill bottle 

5 cm long 



V Heat 



Use a clear glass pill or 
medicine bottle (A) . 

Make the tube portion of the 
dropper two at a time by 
heating a piece of glass 
tubing 20 cm long in the 



Here 



Draw Out 
When Soft 



Break 



-34- 



32) 



middle and drawing it out 
to a narrow filament when 
soft. Break the tube at 
the most narrow part of 
the constriction to form 
two tubes (B) . 




Wire 
(E) 



Rubber Cork 
Tube (c) (D) 



c. Notes 



Glass 
Tube 

(B) 



Force the glass tube through 
the one-hole cork stopper 
(D) . Push the piece of 
rubber tubing (C) onto the 
wide end of the glass tubing 
and tie it off with the 
wire (E) to form the dropper's 
suction cap. Adjust the 
length of the glass tube 
so that when the cork is in 
place in the bottle, the 
tip of the glass tube almost 
touches the bottom of the 
bottle. 



(i) If one-hole cork stoppers are not available, use a cork borer to make 
them from regular corks or use one-hole rubber stoppers. 

(ii) Be sure to label the bottle with the name of the type of stain it 
contains . 



C4 . Hand Microtome 



-35- 




(1) Block and Bolt 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Block and Bolt 



b. Construction 

(1) Block and Bolt 




: 




End View 



Side-view 
(Cross-section) 



q u Items Required 
1 Wood Block (A) 
1 Glass Tubinq (B 



Wood Dowel (C) 



Steel Bolt (D) 



Nut (E) 




End View 



Dimensions 

3 cm x 5 cm x 6 cm 

5 cm long, 1 cm 
inside diameter 

I cm lonq, 1 cm 
diameter 

9 cm lonq, 
approximately 
0.7 cm diameter 

To fit bolt 



Prepare the wood block (A) 
by drillinq or borinq a 
hole slightly larqer in 
diameter than the outside 
diameter of the qlass tubinq 

(B) 4 cm into one end of the 
block. Drill another hole 

(0.7 cm diameter) throuqh 
the same end of the block. 
This second hole should be 



-36- 



Nut (E) 





Impression of Nut 



centered in the bottom of 
the first, larger hole, and 
be drilled through the 
block. Next, lay the nut (E) 
on the end of the block which 
has the small hole in it. 
Strike the nut sharpiy with 
a hammer to make an impression 
of the nut in the wood. (Be 
careful not to split the 
wood, and also make sure the 
hole in the nut aligns with 
the hole in the wood.) 
After the impression has 
been made in the wood, glue 
the nut into place with epoxy 
resin cement. 



Wood 
Dowel (C) 



Bolt (D) 




Glass 
Tube (B) 



Wood 
lock (A) 



t (E 



Shove the piece of glass 
tubing (B) down into the 
large hole in the wood (A) , 
and glue it in place. The end 
of the tube should stick out 
about 1 cm. See that this end 
is cut as evenly as possible 
and fire polish it just enough 
to remove any possible burrs. 
Insert the short wooden dowel 
(C) into the tube. Screw 
the bolt (D) through the nut 
until the end of the bolt 
touches the wooden dowel. 



Side View 
(Cross-section) 



-37- 



The microtome is now ready 
for use. 



c. Notes 



(i) To operate the hand microtome, screw out the bolt until the wood 
dowel drops to the bottom of the glass tube. Then, insert the section of 
plant stem (or whatever is to be cut for the microscope slide) into the glass 
tube. Fill the space which remains between the specimen and the glass tube 
with melted paraffin and allow it to cool. When the paraffin is hard, screw 
the bolt in until it begins to force the wood dowel to push the paraffin and 
specimen out of the glass tube. As the specimen comes out, use a single- 
edge razor blade to cut off sections. Practice with the microtome will 
eventually allow very thin sections to be sliced from specimens. 

(ii) It may be desirable to substitute metal tubing for the glass as glass 
is easily broken . Also, painting the end of the wood dowel with shellac 
or varnish will prevent the paraffin from sticking to it. 



-38- 



11. DISSECTING APPARATUS 

A. DISSECTING APPARATUS 

These items will permit the student to do many of the dissections normally 
done in elementary biology course work. If possible, each student should have 
each of the items in this section, but if cost and materials prohibit this, 
then enough items should be produced to permit students to work in groups of 
two or three. 



Al . Dissecting Needles 



-39- 



A. DISSECTINGAPPARATUS 



(1) Handle 




c 



(3) Binding^ (2) Needle 



3^= 




a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Handle 

(2) Needle 



(3) Binding 



b. Construction 
(1) Handle 



(2) Needle 



o.3ll 



4.7 



Qu Items Required 

1 Wood Dowel (A) 

1 Steel Wire (B) 



1 Iron Wire (C) 



f 



"^fe 



Dimensions 

10 cm long, 0.6 cm 
. 8 cm diameter 

5 cm long, #20 
gauge wire (approx- 
imately 0.05 cm 
diameter) 

About 10 cm of 
#24 gauge wire 
(about 0.025 cm 
diameter) 



The wood dowel (A) serves as 
the handle. Make a slit about 
2 cm deep in one end to 
receive the needle. Sand the 
two ends to make them smooth. 

Break the wire (B) by bending 
it back and forth instead of 
cutting it with wire cutters 
as hard steel can easily 
damage wire cutters. File one 
end to a point. 



-40- 



(3) Binding 




At a point 0.3 cm from the 
unpointed end, grasp the 
wire with two pliers and 
slowly bend until a 90° 
angle has been reached. If 
a "bent tip" dissecting 
needle is desired, bend the 
needle to an angle of 130° 
approximately 1 cm from the 
pointed end. 

Insert the end of the needle 
into the handle about 1 cm 
deep. Wrap several turns of 
binding wire (C) tightly 
around the handle and twist 
the ends together. 



c. Notes 

(i) Iron, rather than steel, wire may be used for the needle by first making 
the bends where needed. Then heat the wire until it becomes dull red and 
immerse it in cold water 'to temper it. The iron wire will become hard enough 
so that it does not bend easily; however, it may be broken if pressed with too 
much force. 



A2 . Strapping Scalpel 



-41- 



a 



(1) Handle 



( 3) Binding 




(2) Blade 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Handle 

(2) Blade 

(3) Binding 



b. Construction 



(1) Handle 



c 



q u Items Required 

1 Wood Dowel (A) 

1 Steel Strapping (B) 

1 Iron Wire (C) 



K l M 



Dimensions 

10 cm long, 1 cm 
diameter 

6 cm long, 1 cm 
wide 

About 12 cm long, 
#24 gauge (approx- 
imately 0.025 cm 
diameter) 



Make a slit in one end of 
the dowel (A) with a saw for 
the blade. Sand the ends to 
make them smooth. 



(2) Blade 



/K/1& 



J^ 



w^:; 



Cut the piece of strapping (B 
into the shape of a scalpel 
blade (many shapes are useful 
for different purposes) . 
Taper one end so it will fit 
the handle. File the edges 
(as shown by the shaded areas) 
to make the cutting edge. 



-42- 



(3) Binding 




Insert the blade into the 
slit in the end of the 
handle. Wrap several turns 
of #24 gauge wire (C) 
tightly around the handle 
and twist the ends together. 
This should hold the blade 
firmly in place. 



c. Notes 



(i) The blade should be sharpened after the entire scalpel has been 
assembled in order to lessen the danger of being cut, 

(ii) An equally good scalpel may be made from a piece of strapping about 
15 cm long. Simply form a blade at one end as described above, and let the 
remainder act as the handle. This portion should be wrapped in tape to make 
it more comfortable to handle. 



Tape- 



// ////& 



A3. Razor Scalpel 



-43- 



(1) Handle 




3) Fasteners 



(2) Blade 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Handle 



(2) Blade 



(3) Fasteners 



b. Construction 



(1) Handle 



V////// 



Tape (B] 



Qll Items Required 

2 Steel Strapping (A) 



: 



Tape (B) 

Double-Edged Razor 
Blade (C) 

Bolts (D) 



Nuts (E) 



\ 



Holes 



Dimensions 

15 cm long, about 
1.25 cm wide 

About 50 cm long 
2 . 5 cm x 3.5 cm 



1.0 cm long, 0.4 
cm diameter 

. 4 cm inside 
diameter 



Fasten the two pieces of 
strapping (A) together with 
tape (B) . Drill two holes 
(0.5 cm diameter) in the 
other end for the bolts (D) 
to fit through. Locate 
these holes so that the 
razor blade (C) will be held 
in the desired position. 



-44- 



(2) Blade 



\T\y-v — ~— - — \r^s~v 



O 



O 



Insert the blade between 
the two halves of the 

scalpel handle so that the 
two holes align over the 
holes in the razor blade. 



Razor Blade (C) 



Strapping (A) 



(3) Fasteners 



Insert the short bolts (D) 
through the holes and screw 
on the nuts (E) . This 
scalpel is now ready for 
use. 



c. Notes 



(i) The razor blade can easily be replaced as it becomes dull. 



A4 . Scissors 



-45- 



(1) Body 



(2) Fastener 




a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Body 

(2) Fastener 



b. Construction 
(1) Body 



6.5' 



Si 

2 



Items Required 
Steel Strapping (A) 

Bolt (B) 
Nut (C) 



'Heat and Twist 

Here 



">T<- 



.5 



=31 



Dimensions 

15 cm x 1.25 cm, 
at least . 05 cm 
thick 

. 5 cm long, . 5 
cm diameter 

0.5 cm inside 
diameter 



Hold the pieces of strapping 
(A) tightly together and 
heat them at a point approx- 
imately 6.5 cm from the end 
until they both glow dull 
red. Then, twist them a 
full quarter (90°) turn. 
Immediately plunge them into 



-46- 




cold water to restore their 

temper . 

Drill a hole 0.6 cm in 
diameter about 1 cm from the 
twist on the short (6.5 cm) 
end of both pieces . 




Bend the long (8.5 cm) ends 
up to form the handles. 




///// ////////^/A 



<<? 



Outside 



J=7 



1 



-Inside 



30 c 



Trim the tips of the strapping 
to the shape of blades . 
Sharpen the shaded area of 
the blade. File this area 
on the outside edge only, 
not the inside edge where 
the blades meet, In sharpen- 
ing, file upward at an angle 

of 30°. 



-47- 



(2) Fastener 






Burred (roughened) 

End of Bolt (B) 



Fasten the two halves of 
the scissors together with 
the short bolt (B) (a long 
bolt may be cut to length) 
and nut (C) . When the 
proper tightness is obtained, 
burr the end of the bolt to 
prevent the nut from loosening 
and falling off. 



Notes 



(i) Scissors constructed of strapping of 0.05 cm in thickness work fairly 
well in cutting tissues as long as short cuts are made, and the material being 
cut is kept well back between the blades. 

(ii) Scissors work better if the blades are slightly curved as shown below. 




Side View 



A5. Forceps 




11/ Strapping 



a. Materials Required 
Components Qu 
(1) Strapping 1 

b. Construction 



(1) Strapping 



L 



Items Require d 
Steel Strapping (A) 




Dimensions 

20 cm long, about 
1.25 cm wide 



Cut each end of the steel 
strapping (A) to a taper. 



Temper This Bend 




Side View 



Bend the strapping a full 
180° at the midpoint. Make 
certain the tops touch and 
are in good alignment. Heat 
the bent area to dull red 
and plunge immediately into 
cold water to temper the 
steel. Bow the blades of 
the forceps slightly 



A6. Dropper 



-49- 



t£C 



/ 

(2) Cap 



(1) Tube 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Tube 



(2) Cap 



b. Construction 



(1) Tube 



f. 



Qu Items Required 

1 Glass Tubing (A) 

1 Rubber Tubing (B) 

2 Soft Wire (C) 



Heat 



Draw out 



Dimensions 

7 cm long, about 
. 6 cm diameter 

4 cm long, 1 cm 
outside diameter 

4-5 cm long 



Hold the glass tubing (A) 
over a hot flame, turning 
it to heat it evenly. When 
it begins to soften, draw 
it out until the constriction 
is the desired diameter, and 
allow it to cool. When cool, 
cut the tubing at the con- 
striction with a small 
triangular file. 



cut 



-50- 



[2) Cap 



Rubber Tubing (B) 



Glass Tube (A) 




Wires (C) 



Slip the rubber tubing (B) 
over the end of the glass 
tube. Wrap a piece of wire 
(C) tightly around the tubing 
to hold it tight to the 
glass, and twist the end of 
the wire together. In a 
similar manner, close off 
the open end of the rubber 
tubing so that it is airtight. 



c. Notes 

(i) Droppers may be made in many shapes and sizes to fit the various uses 
for which they are needed. 



A7 . Dissecting Pan 




(1) Pan 



(2) Wax 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Pan 

(2) Wax 

b. Construction 
(1) Pan 



Qu Items Required 

1 Oil Can (A) 

Paraffin Wax (B) 



Cut here 




Dimensions 

Approximately 

17 cm x 2 5 cm x 3 cm 

Enough to partially 
fill the pan (about 
: liter) 



Remove the handle from a 
4 liter rectangular oil can 
(A) . Cut off the sides about 
3 cm from the edge. It is 
best to put tape on the 
sharp edges of the pan to 
prevent students from cutting 
themselves . 



Pan 



-52- 



(2) Wax 



Fill the pan about two thirds 
full of melted paraffin wax 
(B) ( and allow the wax to 
harden. Be careful in 
heating the wax not to get 
it too hot or it may ignite. 
It is best to place the 
paraffin block in a glass 
jar, and put the glass jar in 
hot water until the wax melts. 



c, Notes 

(i) Any container like an oil can (e.g., waxed cardboard milk containers) 
can be used as long as a suitable pan can be made from it. Alternatively, 
pans can be made from sheet metal if there is sufficient technical help 
available . 



(ii) Cases for dissecting tools can be made from heavy cloth material if 
it is desirable to keep each student's kit separate from the others. 



-53- 



111. AQUATIC COLLECTING APPARATUS 

These are a wide variety of items used in collecting plant and animal 
specimens from the aquatic environment. Remember to use waterproof and water 
resistant materials wherever possible in the construction of this apparatus. 

A. NETS AND DREDGES 



Nets and dredges are easily made items useful in collecting both plants and 
animals. They are all made with some sort of netting or mesh. 

B. AQUATIC TRAPS 



These two traps can be used to catch some types of aquatic animals. 

C. SUPPLEMENTARY AQUATIC MATERIALS 

Materials included here are less necessary, yet still useful, items in 
aquatic collection. 



Al. Dip Net 



-54- 




Loop 



(3) Net 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Handle 

(2) Loop 



(3) Net 



b. Construction 



Qu Items Required 

1 Wood Dowel (A) 

1 Heavy Wire (B) 

1 Stiff Wire (C) 

1 Nylon Baq (D) 



(1) Handle 






S" \ 0.4 


•7 1 > 


t> <H , v * 




' n j 


^ / 


U u 


r 


End View 




Side View 



Dimensions 

100 cm long, 
2 cm diameter 

115 cm long, 
. 3 cm diameter 

About BO-90 cm long, 
. 1 cm diameter 

50 cm wide, 
60 cm long 



The length of the handle may 
be varied according to per- 
sonal preference, cut two 
grooves in one end of the 
wood dowel (A) , one opposite 
the other. Make these grooves 
about 7 cm long, . 3 cm deep, 
and about 0.4 cm wide. 



-55- 



(2) Loop 




Binding of Loop 
to Handle 



Form a loop 30 cm in diameter 
from the heavy wire (B) . Leave 
about 7 cm of excess wire at 
each end which will fit into 
the grooves in the handle. 
Bend these 7 cm portions to 
90° angles. Fit the wire ends 
into the grooves in the 
handle and bind them in place 
with the stiff wire (C) . 



(3) Net 



c. Notes 



If a nylon laundry bag (D) of 
the given dimensions is used, 
cut it down so that it is 
only about 30 cm deep rather 
than 60. Other types of cloth 
or netting can also be used. 
Use cloth or netting through 
which water can easily pass, 
but remember that the size 
of the net weave determines 
the size of the smallest 
organisms which will be held 
by the net. Make sure the 
opening of the net is 5-10 
cm greater in circumference 
than that of the loop. Simply 
sew the open portion of the 
net around the loop with strong 
thread. 



(i) The dip net is used to collect aguatic organisms of all kinds from the 
shore or boat. Be sure to make its construction as sturdy as possible. 



A2 . Hand Screen 



-56- 



(1) Frame 

and Screen 




a. Materials Required 
Components 

(i) Frame and 
Screen 



Qu I tems Required 

2 Wood Dowels (A) 

1 Stiff Wire (B) 

2 Stiff Wire (C) 

1 Fine Wire Mesh (D) 

1 Fine Wire Mesh (E) 

1 Fine Wire (F) 



Dimensions 

45 cm long, 

1.5 cm diameter 

35 cm long, 

. 4 cm diameter 

50 cm long, 

. 4 cm diameter 

35 cm x 50 cm 

30 cm x 15 cm 

150 cm long, 
0.05 cm diameter 



-57- 



b. Construction 

(1) Frame and Screen 




Handle 
o 1 e 



-»-Hole 



■«!w ood Dowel 
_ Hole 



Nail 




(a: 



Stiff Wire (C) 



Mesh 



Detail 



Set the two wood dowels (A) 
so that they are 50 cm apart. 
Take the wire mesh (D) and 
secure it to the dowels by 
wrapping it around each dowel 
once and then nailing it in 
place on the dowel. Be sure 
Dowel (f\) to leave 10 cm free at one end 
of each dowel to serve as 
handles. Drill two holes, 
0.4 cm in diameter, in each 
dowel; drill the first 1 cm 
from the end with which the 
wire mesh is even, and the 
second, 12 cm from the end 
which is to be the handle. 

Bend the two 50 cm sections 
of stiff wire (C) into semi- 
circles, each with a diameter 
of 30 cm. Place one end of 
one piece of wire into one 
hole of the wood dowel, so 
that about 5 cm of wire is 
protruding out of each hole. 
Bend these end pieces around 
the wood dowel until they 
reach the main body of wire. 
Follow this procedure for the 
other piece of wire. These 
two pieces of wire now form 
an outside frame to which the 
wire mesh (D) is attached. 




Stiff Wire (C) 

Fine Wire (F) 
Fine Wire Mesh (D) 



Using the fine wire (F) , in 
much the same way as one 
would use thread in sewing, 
wire the wire mesh (D) to the 
stiff wire frame, letting the 
edges of the wire mesh 
slightly overlap the wire 
frame . 



Detail 




Bottom View 



Dowel (A) 

Stiff Wire (B) 

Wire Mesh (E) 
Stiff Wire (C) 



Take the last piece of stiff 
wire (B) and run it between 
the ends of the two wood 
dowels with which the wire 
mesh is flush. Secure it by 
bending about 3 cm of each 
end around the wire frame. 
Now, take the remaining piece 
of wire mesh (E) and cut it 

into the shape of a semi- 
circle. Wire this semicircle 
onto the bottom of the hand 
screen with the "sewing" 
method described above. 



-59- 



c. Notes 

(i) This simple device is an effective means of collecting small plants 
and animals in streams. To operate, simply hold it in the water and permit 
the stream water to flow through the wire mesh and remove organisms as they 
are collected. 

(ii) As an extra measure, have someone stand upstream and disturb rocks, 
thus chasing out underlying organisms. 



A3. Dredge 



-60- 



(2) Net 



(3) Weight 



(1) Can 




a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Can 

(2) Net 



(3) Weight 



Qll Items Required 

1 Tin Can (A) 

1 Nylon Bag (B) 

1 Wire Strapping (C) 



3 


Bolts (D) 


3 


Nuts (E) 


2 


Cords (F) 


6 


Corks (G) 


1 


Nail (H) 


2 


Steel Bars (I ) 


2 


Bolts (J) 


2 


Nuts (K) 


1 


Cord (L) 



Dimensions 

15 cm diameter, 
18 cm long 

50 cm wide, 
60 cm long 

50 cm long, 1 . 5 cm 
wide, 0.05 cm thick 

1 . 5 cm long 

To fit bolts 

20 cm long 

3 cm x 3 cm 

. 5 cm long 

12 cm x 3 cm x 0.3 cm 
1 . 5 cm long 
To fit bolts 
100 cm long 



-61- 



b. Construction 
(1) Can 




(2) Net 



Nail Head (H) 



Side View of 
Rivet 



Cut both ends from the tin 
can (A) . Flatten one end of 
the can to a rough rectangular 
shape about 15 cm x 10 cm. 
Drill three holes in the round 
end of the can, each about 
4 cm from the ends . Space 
these holes every 120° and 
make them slightly larger in 
diameter than the bolts (D) 
used. Make two more holes 
the same diameter at the 
other end of the can. These 
holes should be about 2 cm 
from the edge and 9 cm apart. 

Make a loop from the strapping 
(C) that will fit inside the 
can (i.e., slightly smaller 
than 15 cm in diameter) . To 
do this easily, drill a small 
hole near each end of the 
strapping. Cut the head off 
a flat-headed nail (H) and 
insert this nail through the 
holes in the strapping. 
Flatten the nail down like a 
rivet to hold the loop to- 
gether. 



-62- 



Rivet 




Drill holes in the strapping 
which will align with the 
holes in the round end of the 
can. One might wish to drill 
these holes before riveting 
the loop together. These 
holes should be the same dia- 
meter as the holes in the can. 



Strapping Loop (C) 




Seam 



-Rivet 



■Hole 



Nylon Bag (B) 



Side View 



Sew the open end of the nylon 
bag(B) around the strapping loop 
with stout thread. The net 
may also be made from nylon 
netting if ready-made bags 
are unavailable. Punch holes 
through the nylon bag to 
correspond to the holes in 
the strapping loop. Fasten 
the net and loop to the can 
with the three nuts (E) and 
bolts (D) . 



Sew Here 




Detail of Cork (G) Attachment 



Punch holes through the six 
corks (G) and tie one of them 
to each of the two cords (F) . 
Run each of the cords through 
two of the remaining corks 
and tie one cord to each 
corner of the net (B) . It 
may be necessary to sew around 
each connection to prevent 
the nylon from tearing. 



-63- 



(3) Weight 



Can (A) 




Weight (I)' 



Can (A) 



Detail 



Cord (L) 




Cord (L) 



Drill two holes slightly 
larger than the bolts (J) 
used in each steel bar (I) . 
Make these holes 9 cm apart 
so they will align with the 
holes already drilled in the 
can. Insert the two bolts 
(J) through the holes in one 
of the steel bars and then 
put the bolts through the 
holes in the can so that the 
steel bar weight is on the 
outside of the can. Stretch 
the cord (L) around the two 
bolts. 

Place the second steel bar 
(I) over the two bolts and 
fasten with the nuts (K) . 
The cord (L) should be firmly 
held between the can and bar. 
Tie the loose end of the cord 
together to form a loop. 



c. Notes 

(i) In use, the dredge is tied to a long rope and dragged along the bottom 
of a body of water. Organisms living on or near the bottom are collected in 
the net. 

(ii) The weights insure that the dredge will stay in the correct position 
on the bottom. The corks are to help keep the net off the bottom until it is 



-64- 



filled with collected material . This prevents it from being torn. 

(iii) Use water resistant materials wherever possible in construction of 
this and all aquatic apparatus. 



A4 . Plankton Net * 



-65- 



(1) Net 



(2) Bottle 




(3) Tow Line 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Net 



(2) Bottle 



(3) Tow Line 



b. Construction 



(1) Net 



Qll Items Required 

1 Nylon or Silk Stockinq (A) 

1 Metal Strappinq (B) 



1 Glass Bottle (C) 

1 Rubber Band (D) 

2 Cords (E) 

1 Lead Weiqht (F) 



Dimensions 

About 50 cm lonq 

40 cm lonq, 1.5 cm 
wide, 0.05 cm thick, 
2 . 5 cm diameter 

2 . 5 cm diameter, 
6 cm lonq 



13 l.f- 



13 



ir 



13 



T 



60 cm lonq 

Weiqht is variable 

Drill four holes into the 
metal strappinq (A) at 13 cm 
intervals. Make the holes 
about 0.3 cm in diameter. 



*Adapted from Bioloqical Sciences Curriculum Study, High School Biology: 
Student's Manual, (Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 963), p 157. 



-66- 




Hold the strapping in a ring 
shape and sew the open end 
of the stocking (A) to this 
ring. Cut off the foot of 
the stocking. 



Sew 



(2) Bottle 



(3) Tow Line 




First Cord (E) 



Attach the glass bottle (C) 
to the end of the net by. 
wrapping the rubber band (D) 
tightly around it. Be sure 
the opening to the bottle is 
not clogged by material from 
the net. 

Punch small holes in the net 
to correspond to the three 
holes in the strapping ring. 
Tie one end of one cord (E) 
to one of these holes, make 
a loop in the middle of the 
cord, and tie the other end 
to the hole formed where the 
two ends of the strapping 
overlap. Next, tie the 
other cord (E) to the re- 
maining hole in the ring. Tie 
the middle of this cord to the 
knot in the other cord, and 
tie the free end to a lead 
fishing weight (F) . 



Weight (F) 



-67- 



c. Notes 

(i) The plankton net is best used by dragging it behind a boat near the 
surface of the water. Organisms are trapped in the bottle as the water 
washes through the net. 

(ii) Use netting with as fine a mesh as possible. An old parachute is 
an excellent source of material for the net. 



A5. Two-Man Seine* 



-68- 



(1) Frame 




1(2) Mesh 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Frame 



(2) Mesh 



Qli I tems Required 

1 Nylon Rope (A) 

3 Cork Floats (B) 

2 Wood Dowels (C) 

1 Galvanized Chain 

1 Nylon Cord (E) 

1 Nylon Seine Net 



Dimensions 

250 cm long, 
0.5 cm diameter 

15 cm long, 

10 cm diameter 

150 cm long, 
3 cm diameter 

200 cm long 

About 1000 cm long, 
0.2 cm diameter 

130 cm x 200 cm 



Construction 
(1) Frame 



,Dowel (C) 



Cork (B) 




Chain (D) 



O 



200 



VT 



130 



Fasten the ends of the chain 
(D) to the bottoms of the 
wooden dowels (C) . Tie one 
end of the nylon rope (A) to 
the top of one dowel about 
20 cm from the end. Run the 
free end of the rope through 
the holes in the cork floats 
(B) and tie it to the other 



* Adapted from Jens W. Knudsen, Biological Techniques, (New York: Harper and 
Row, 1966) , p 326. 



-69- 



(2) Mesh 




dowel so that the distance 
between the two dowels when 
the rope is stretched out is 
200 cm. 

Use a mesh (F) from 0.25 to 
0.50 cm square. Fasten it 
to the dowel (C), chain (D), 
and rope (A) as shown by 
using the small diameter 
nylon cord (E) . 



Attachment of Mesh (F) to 
Rope (A) 




Attachment of Mesh (F) 
to Dowel (C) 




Attachment of Mesh (F) to 
Chain (D) 



-70- 



c. Notes 

(i) Two persons are required to use the seine net. Each holds one of 
the poles upright in the water and they both walk slowly toward the shore. 
A great variety of organisms can be collected in this manner. 

(ii) Wherever possible, use corrosion and rot resistant materials for 
the seine such as nylon rope, cord and mesh and galvanized chain. 



-71- 



A6. Lift Net 




(2) Spreaders 



(1) Net 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Net 

(2) Spreaders 

b. Construction 

(1) Net 



Qll Items Required 
1 Nylon Mesh (A) 
4 Metal Washers (B) 



2 



Heavy Wires (C) 




Sew Washer 



Corner Detail 



Dimensions 

50 cm x 50 cm 

1 . 5 cm diameter 

100 cm long, 
. 3 cm diameter 



Construction of the lift net 
is quite simple. Simply fold 
over each corner of the nylon 
mesh (A) and sew a washer (B) 
to the double thickness of 
material. Punch a hole 
through the center of each 
washer and through the double 
layer of nylon. 



*Adapted from Jens W. Knudsen, Biological Techniques , (New York: Harper and Row, 
1966), p 283. 



-72- 



(2) Spreaders Roll each wire (C) to a 

roughly semicircular shape. 
Insert one end of each wire 
through adjacent corners of 
the net and bend up the ends . 
Insert the other end of each 
wire through the corner 
diagonally opposite the first 
corner and bend up the ends 
again. Use a small piece 
of wire to bind the spreaders 
together where they cross. 

Notes 



(i) Use the lift net to catch small fish and crustaceans. Place a suitable 
bait firmly tied to a weight in the center of the net. Tie a line to the lift 
net where the spreaders cross and lower the net into the water. Ifthe water 
is clear, watch for fish or crustaceans to near the center of the net, and 
when they do, quickly lift the net to trap them. Ifthe water is not clear, 
simply wait for one or two minute intervals before quickly raising the net. 

(ii) Small fish may be collected by floating food on the surface of the 
water. As small fish come to the food, the net may be raised, and the fish 
collected. 



-73- 



B. AQUATIC TRAPS 



Bl, Piling Trap 




;i) Suspended Traps 



a. Materials Required 

Components Qu i tems Required 

Wood (A) 



(1) Suspended Traps 1 



Dimensions 

24 cm x 24 cm x 4 cm 



-74- 



4 Wood (B) 
1 Wire (C) 



1 



Metal Rod 



5 Nails (E) 



10 cm x 10 cm x 2 cm 

120 cm long, 
0.1 cm diameter 

26 cm long, 

1.5 cm diameter 

2.5 cm long, 
0.3 cm diameter 



b. Construction 

(1) Suspended Traps 




Large Block 
"" of Wood (A) 



Bent Nail (E) 




Nail (E) 



-Small Block 
of Wood (B) 



Place a heavy staple or bent 
nail (E) in the center of the 
large block of wood (A) . 
Drill a hole 0.4 cm in dia- 
meter through the center of 
each of the small blocks of 
wood (B) . Place a nail (E) 
near each of the holes and 
wrap the wire (C) around these 
nails as it is passed through 
the holes. Bend the nails 
down across the holes. The 
small blocks should be spaced 
about 20 cm apart, with the 
first block about 30 cm from 
the large wood block (A) , and 
the metal rod (D) about 30 cm 
from the last block. Drill 
a hole in the metal rod 
through which the wire is 
run, and connect the rod to 
the wire. Finally, attach 
the upper end of the wire to 
the staple or bent nail on 
the underside of the large 
block of wood. 



-75- 



c. Notes 

(i) Many aquatic animals attach themselves to the bottom of boats and 
piers. This trap utilizes this principle in capturing these organisms. 
To operate, simply place the apparatus in the water and remove approxi- 
mately every 30 days and collect the organisms which have attached themselves 
to the blocks of wood. 

(ii) The large wood block may be substituted for by some other type of 
float. A watertight plastic container (e.g., an empty plastic bottle of 
bleach) can be used. This float can be painted a bright color, thus making 
it easy to see. 

(iii) Any type of weight may be used provided that it is not heavy enough 
to submerge the large block of wood while still keeping the small blocks of 
wood under water. 



-76- 



B2 . Funnel Trap 



^ n. 




(1) Body 



(2) Funnel 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Body 



(2) Funnel 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Wire Mesh (A) 

1 Wire Mesh (B) 

1 Stiff Wire (C) 

1 Stiff Wire (D) 

[ Fine Wire (E) 

1 Stiff Wire (F) 

1 Sprinq (G) 

1 Wire Mesh (H) 

4 Wire Mesh (I) 

1 Fine Wire (J) 



Dimensions 

45 cm x 8 cm 

25 cm diameter 

85 cm lonq, 

0.2 cm diameter 

50 cm lonq, 

0.2 cm diameter 

0.05 cm diameter, 
about 300 cm lonq 

85 cm lonq, 

0.2 cm diameter 

2 cm lonq 

30 cm diameter 

17 cm x 17 cm 

0.05 cm diameter, 
about 300 cm lonq 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 





|< 45 *\ 

Cylinder 



25 Diameter 



Make a cylinder 45 cm lonq 
and 25 cm in diameter from 
the rectanqular piece of wire 
mesh (A) . Wire the 45 cm 
sides toqether with the fine 



Mesh (A) 




-77- 



Seam 



wire (E) in much the same 
way as one would sew a cloth 
seam. Let the edges of the 
mesh overlap about 1 cm to 
facilitate "sewing" them 
together with the wire. 



Detail 



f — 10- 

Wire 



20 




Wire Handle (D) 



Next, bend the stiff wire (D) 
to the shape of a "U" Make 
two small holes 10 cm apart 
in the cylinder. Insert the 
U-shaped wire through these 
two holes, and bend up the 
ends leaving about 2.5 cm of 
the wire extending out of the 
cylinder as a handle. Take 
the 25 cm diameter piece of 
wire mesh (B) and "sew" it to 
one end of the cylinder with a 
piece of fine wire (E) to seal 
it off. 



Mesh Circle (B) 




Connection 



Hoop Made 
from Wire (C) 



Wire. 
Mesh (A) 




Detail of 

Connection 




Wire 
Hoop (C) 



Fine Wire (E) 



Finally, make a 25 cm diameter 
"hoop" from the stiff wire (C) 
by hooking the ends together. 
Connect the wire hoop to the 
open end of the cylinder with 
fine wire to stiffen the cylin- 
der. This is best done by 
folding about 2 cm of the end 
of the cylinder back over the 
hoop and sewing the hoop 
inside this flap for the full 
circumference of the hoop. 



Detail 



(2) Funnel 



Cutout 




Mesh ( I 



Cut a square 17 cm on a side 
from the center of the circu- 
lar piece of wire mesh (H) . 
Also, cut a V-shaped notch 
2.5 cm deep in one edge of the 
piece of mesh. 



-79- 



Wire 
Mesh (I) 




Cut the four pieces of wire 
mesh (I) into triangular-shaped 
pieces 17 cm at the base and 
5 cm at the apex. Sew the 
four pieces together along 
their long edges with fine 
wire (J) to form a pyramid- 
shaped funnel. 




"Sew" Along These 
Edges 



Mesh Funnel 



Funnel 




Circular 
Mesh 



"Sew" Along 
This Edge 



Sew the funnel to the cir- 
cular piece of mesh (H) with 
the sguare cutout. 



-80- 



Loop 




Spring (G) 



Hoop 



Form a hoop from the stiff 
wire (F) 25 cm in diameter 
with small loops at both ends. 
Connect these two ends of the 
hoop with the spring (G) . 
(Springs can easily be made 
by wrapping stiff wire around 
a pencil or other round object.) 



Funnel 




wi re 

Hoqp (F) Spring (G) 



Notch 



Now, fold up a ridge 2 . 5 cm 
high all around the circum- 
ference of the circular piece 
of mesh (H) . Wire the hoop 
(F) to this ridge making 
certain the spring (G) on the 
hoop aligns with the "V" notch 
in the mesh. Fit this funnel 
Ridge assembly over the end of the 
cylindrical body by pulling 
the spring open slightly. 
Slip the funnel over the end of 
the cylinder and let the spring 
snap back. The tension of the 
spring should hold the funnel 
assembly to the cylinder 
relatively tightly. 



Notes 



(i) Use of the funnel trap is simple. . Just remove the funnel portion of 
the trap by spreading open the spring sllightly and pulling the funnel off the 
cylinder. Place some rocks or other weil'ghts in the trap to hold it down in the 
water, and place a suitable bait (e.g., pieces of fish, old cheese wrapped in 



a cloth bag) in the cylinder. Replace the funnel, and tie a length of rope to 
the handle. Drop the trap into a stream or pond, and tie the other end of the 
rope to an object on the bank or a float (a plastic bottle makes an excellent 
float) . Check the trap periodically to remove captured animals and replace 
baits . 

(ii) The following two patterns can also be used for the funnel: 




17 



tsH 



44 




The first pattern is used because it wastes less material while the 
second is good because only one seam needs to be sewn while the others are 
merely folded. 

(iii) Wherever possible, use rustproof materials like aluminum screening 
in the construction of this item. 

(i v ) The circular and other shapes can more easily be cut from the wire 
mesh if a pattern is first cut from paper and taped to the mesh. Then cut 
around the paper rather than attempting to draw a pattern on the mesh as this 
is extremely difficult to do. 



-82- 



C. SUPPLEMENTARY AQUATIC MATERIALS 



CI. Bottom Sampler 



(1) Can 




( 2 ) Handle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Can 



(2) Handle 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Tin Can (A) 



: 


Hinge (B) 


3 


Bolts (C) 


2 


Nuts (D) 


3 


Wood Screws ( 


1 


Wood (F) 


: 


Wood Dowel (G 


: 


Eyed Screw (H 


: 


Wire (I) 



Dimensions 

12 cm long, 
8 cm diameter 



1 . cm long 
To fit bolts 
1 . cm long 

5 cm x 4 cm x 4 cm 

2 . 5 cm diameter, 
length variable 



18 cm long 



b. Construction 



(1) Can 




Hinge (B) 



Top View 



(2) Handle 



f> ~ x .-Handle (G) 



Hinge (B) 




Eyed Screw (H) 



Wire (I) 



Side View 



Remove one end of the tin 
can (A) . Punch a small hole 
near the bottom of the can. 
At the open end of the can 
fasten one plate of the hinge 

(B) to the can with the bolts 

(C) and nuts (D) . Holes will 
have to be drilled or punched 
through the can for the bolts 
to go through. The hinge may 
be fastened to the can with 
sheet metal screws if these 
are available . 

Drill or bore a hole the same 
diameter as the wood dowel (G) 
through the middle of the 
wood block (F) . Insert one 
end of the dowel into the 
block and screw or glue them 
together. With screws (E) , 
fasten the plate of the 
hinge (B) to the bottom of 
the block. Screw the eyed 
screw (H) into the other 
side of the wood block. 
Finally, make a knot in the 
end of the wire (I) and pass 
the free end through the 
hole in the bottom of the 
can (the knot must be inside 
the can) and tie the free 
end to the eyed screw. 



-84- 



Can (A) 



^ 



Hinge (B). 

-L Dowel (G) 




Wood Block (F) 



Bottom View 



c. Notes 

(i) To operate, simply lower the sampler into the water until the can hits 
bottom. Drag the can back and forth until it feels heavy, then pull it out 
of the water and remove the bottom sediment. The wire prevents the can from 
hitting bottom with the open end pushed against the handle so that no sedi- 
ment can enter it. Collect bottom samples in different ponds and streams to 
check the sediment for the various organisms living in each. 

(ii) The length of the handle will vary according to the depth of the water 
where the sample is to be taken. 

(iii) The details of design of this item depend mainly on the type of hinge 
used. 



C2 . Grappling Hook 



(2) Sheath 




(1) Prongs 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 
(1) Prongs 



(2) Sheath 



b. Construction 
(1) Prongs 



Qtl I tems Required 

6 Stiff Wire (A) 

1 Soft Wire (B) 

1 Sheet Metal (C) 

2 Soft Wire (D) 




Dimensions 

40 cm long, 
0.25 cm diameter 

About 100 cm long, 
0.05 cm diameter 

12 cm x 8 cm x 
0.05 cm 

8 cm long, 

. 1 cm diameter 



Bend each piece of stiff 
wire (A) to the shape of a 
hook with a loop at one end. 
Group the prongs together by 
twos and bind them together 



-86- 



with the soft wire 




Then place the three resulting 
double prongs together and 
bind them so that the prongs 
are about at angles of 120° 
to each other. 



(2) Sheath 



c. Notes 



To finish the grappling hook 
simply wrap the piece of 
metal sheet (C) around the 
middle of the hook and bind 
it in place with the soft 
wire (D) . 



(i) To use the hook, just tie it to the end of a rope or cord, drop it into 
the water, and pull it up when it becomes entangled in vegetation. 

(ii) Be careful when handling this item of the sharp edges of the sheet 
metal and the points of the wire used in binding it together. 

(iii) If heavy steel wire is available, only one piece is needed per hook 
rather than two. 



C3. Grappling Bar 



(3) Weight 



(2) Handle 




(1) Body 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Body 



(2) Handle 



(3) Weight 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 



Qll I tems Required 
1 Wood (A) 
24 Nails (B) 

1 Soft Wire (C) 

2 Nails (D) 

2 Lead Pipe (E) 



T 
Jl 



* 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm 

5 cm long, 

0.2 cm diameter 



50 cm long, 

. 2 cm diameter 

3 cm long 

8 cm long, 

1 . 5 cm diameter 



Drive the nails (B) through 
the wood (A) in two rows, 
staggering them so that they 
don't align directly above 
one another. One row of nails 
is nailed through from one 
side while the other row is 




nailed through the opposite 
side. 

Where the nails have been 
driven through the wood, bend 
them upwards at approximately 
45° angles as close to the 
base as possible. 



Side Views 



(2) Handle 

Soft 
Wire (C) 

Nail (D)~ 




Detail 



Hammer one of the nails (D) 
into the end of the body and 
let it protrude about 1 cm. 
Twist one end of the soft 
wire (C) around the nail, 
then hammer it down completely. 



(3) Weight 



c. Notes 



Slip the two pieces of lead 
pipe (E) over the free end of 
the handle, and fasten the 
free end to the opposite end 
of the body. Bend the handle 
at its middle allowing one 
weight to slide down each 
arm of the handle. 



(i) To use the grappling bar, tie the end of a long, stout rope or cord to 
the handle. Drop the bar in water, allow it to reach bottom, and drag it 
along until resistance is-felt, then haul it up. The bar works well for 
retrieving plant specimens from pond and river bottoms. 



89- 



(ii) Be certain the weights are sufficient to sink the bar easily, as wood 
can be extremely buoyant. 



C4. Water Glass 



-90- 



(2) Frame 




(1) Glass 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Glass 



Qll I tems Required 
1 Glass Plate (A) 



Dimensions 

6.3 cmx 10.3 cmx 
. 3 cm 



(2) Frame 



Wood 



20 cm x 9 cm x 2 cm 



-91- 



b. Construction 



;i) Glass Plate 



(2) Frame 




■Groove 




Glass (A) 



Cut the piece of glass (A) 
to the specified dimensions, 
making sure that all the 
edges are smooth and free of 
burrs . 

Cut a groove, . 3 cm wide and 
0.7 cm deep, across the width 
of each piece of wood (B) , 
1.2 cm from one end. Fasten 
two of the pieces of wood 
together at right angles 
using waterproof cement along 
the point of contact. Be 
sure that the grooves are lined 
up and that they face to the 
inside. Use nails or screws 
to reinforce this joint. Glue 
two sides of the glass plate 
with waterproof cement into 
the two grooves, placing the 
long side of the glass plate 
into the groove in the piece 
of wood with a width of 9 cm. 
The next piece of wood should 
be placed so that the groove 
holds the larger of the two 
free sides remaining on the 
glass plate. The last piece 
of wood then fits over the 
final free end. These last 
two pieces of wood should be 
glued and nailed to the pre- 
viously assembled structure 



-92- 



as they are put into place. 
Seal the ends of the grooves 
on the outside of the water 
glass with waterproof cement. 
Make certain all seams are 
waterproof. 



c. Notes 



(i) The water glass is designed to view the bottom organisms of a body of 
water. When the end with the glass plate is inserted into the water, glare 
from the sun as well as surface ripples are eliminated. 



-93- 



IV. TERRESTRIAL COLLECTING APPARATUS 

These items are designed for use in collecting land invertebrates, vertebrates, and 
plants. Instructions for killing, preserving, and storing these organisms can be 
found in a variety of books and journals. 

A. INSECT COLLECTING APPARATUS 



Insects are the most common, familiar organisms everywhere in the world. Items 
described in this section are used in collecting and treating them. 

B. SOIL ORGANISM COLLECTING APPARATU S 

Thesepieces of equipment enable students to discover the multitude and diversity 
of living things in the soil. 

C SMALL VERTEBRATE COLLECTING APPARATUS 



Small lizards, snakes, birds and mammals may be captured alive using these devices. 
D . PLANT COLLECTING APPARATUS 



The vasculum and plant presses in this section are used in collecting and pre- 
serving plant materials . 



-94- 



A. INSECT COLLECTING APPARATUS 



Al. Butterfly Net 



<r 



;i) Handle 




(3) Net 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Handle 

(2) Loop 



(3) Net 

b. Construction 
(1) Handle 



CK' 4vi 

End View 



Qll I tems Required 

1 Wood Dowel (A) 

1 Heavy Wire (B) 

1 Stiff Wire (C) 

1 Nylon Bag (D) 



H 



Side View 



Dimensions 

100 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

115 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 

About 80-90 cm long, 
. 1 cm diameter 

50 cm wide, 60 cm long 



The length of the dowel (A) from 
which the handle is made may be 
varied according to personal 
preference. Cut two grooves in 
one end of the handle, one 
opposite the other. Make these 
grooves about 7 cm long, . 3 cm 
deep, and about . 4 cm wide. 



-95- 



(2) Loop 




Binding of Loop 
to Handle 



(3) Net 



Form a loop 30 cm in diameter 
from the heavy wire (B) . Leave 
about 7 cm of excess wire at 
each end which will fit into the 
grooves in the handle. Bend 
these 7 cm portions to 90° 
angles. Fit the wire ends into 
the grooves in the handle and 
bind them in place with the 
stiff wire (C) . 

Select a finely meshed nylon 
laundry bag (D) or sew a net 
from a piece of nylon cloth or 
similar sturdy cloth with a 
relatively open weave. Whether 
a bag is used or a net sewn 
specifically for the butterfly 
net, make sure the opening of 
the net is 5 - 10 cm greater in 
circumference than that of the 
loop. Simply sew the open por- 
tion of the net around the loop 
with strong thread. 



Notes 



(i) Use the butterfly net to collect flying insects of all kinds. If it is 
sturdily made, it can also be swept through high grass to collect insects living 
in the grass. Consult a good source book for information on preserving, mounting, 
and storing collected insects. 

(ii) The material used for the net must have a fine mesh through which insects 
cannot escape. At the same time, the mesh must be open enough to permit air to 
easily pass through it with little resistance. Parachute nylon is especially good 
for this purpose. 



-96- 



A2 . Killing Jars 




(1) Stopper 



(2) Bottle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Stopper 

(2) Bottle 

b. Construction 

(1) Stopper 



(2) Bottle 



Notes 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Stopper (A) 



1 



Glass Pill Bottle (B) 



Dimensions 
To fit bottle 

Approximately 10 cm 
long, 4 cm diameter 



Select a cork or rubber stopper 
(A) which will effectively seal 
the bottle airtight. 

Use a glass bottle (B) with a 
wide mouth. 



(i) Killing bottles for insects can be made in several ways. Some are 
exceptionally dangerous and should only be used by the instructor. Be certain to 
label all jars as to their contents. 

(ii) The following are methods of preparing killing jars: 

(A) Cyanide Killing Jar - This is extremely dangerous and should only be 
used by the instructor. First, put a thin layer (0.5 cm) of potassium or sodium 
cyanide crystals in the bottom of the bottle. Cover this with a similar layer of 
fine sawdust or dry plaster of Paris. Finally, cover both layers with a layer of 
wet plaster of Paris. The jar is ready to use when the plaster hardens. Be sure 
to keep it tightly stoppered except to kill insects. Use only rubber stoppers. 

(B) Ethyl Acetate Killing Jar - Put a thin (0.5 cm) layer of wet plaster 

of Paris in the bottom of the jar. When it has dried, put some ethyl acetate over 
the plaster and cover it with a small amount of tissue paper. This is also 



-97- 



especially dangerous and should be kept tightly stoppered. 

(C) Carbon Tetrachloride Killing Jar (1) - Pin a small piece of blotting 
paper or cotton to the bottom of the stopper. Saturate this with carbon tetra- 
chloride just before putting the insects in the jar. This is a much safer jar for 
student use as the carbon tetrachloride quickly evaporates. 

(D) Carbon Tetrachloride Killing Jar (2) - Use a one-hole stopper for the 
jar with a short piece of glass tubing extending through the hole. Plug one end of 
the tube with cotton. Place the insect in the jar, and replace the stopper. Then, 
carbon tetrachloride can be dripped through the tube onto the cotton plug where 

the fumes will kill the insect. 

(E) Carbon Tetrachloride Killing Jar (3) - Place several rubber bands in 
the bottom of the jar and soak them overnight in carbon tetrachloride. Pour off 
the excess liquid and put a tight-fitting piece of blotting paper over the bands to 
keep them in place. This jar is relatively long lasting in its killing power. 

(iii) The cork or rubber stoppers may absorb the toxic fumes from the jar so be 
sure to destroy them when the jars are discarded. Be absolutely certain that no 
fumes escape through the cork. It may be necessary to dip cork stoppers in melted 
paraffin wax to seal them completely. 



-98- 



A3 . Relaxing Jar 




1) stopper 



(2) Bottle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Stopper 

(2) Bottle 

b. Construction 

(1) Stopper 



Su 



Items Required 
Cork Stopper (A) 

Glass Pill Bottle (B) 



Dimensions 
To fit bottle 

Approximately 10 cm 
lonq, 4 cm diameter 



(2) Bottle 



Select a cork or rubber stopper 
(A) which will effectively seal 
the bottle airtight. 

Use a qlass bottle (B) with a 
wide mouth . 



c. Notes 



(i) Relaxinq bottles are used to make dead insects more flexible so that they 
can be manipulated into a desirable mountinq position. 

(ii) The followinq is a method for preparinq a relaxinq jar: Place some moist 
sand in the bottom of the jar and add a few drops of carbolic acid to inhibit mold 
growth. Cover the sand with a piece of moist blotter paper. Leave the insects in 
the jar overniqht to relax them. 



A4 . Insect Spreading Board 



-99- 




(1) Platform 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Platform 



b. Construction 
(1) Platform 



5.5 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Wood (A) 

2 Wood (B) 



2 



Wood (C) 




Dimensions 

12 cm x 30 cm x 1 .0 cm 

5.5 cm x 30 cm x 

0.5 cm 

5 . 5 cm x 1 cm x 2 cm 



Cut the two small pieces of 
wood (C) in half diagonally, 
yielding four wedge-shaped 
pieces. Glue two of the wedges 
to the backs of each of the two 
slats (B) . Turn the two slats 
over and glue them to the base 
(A) . Leave a 1.0 cm gap between 
the two slats. 



c. Notes 

(i) Make the slats (B) from the softest wood available (e.g., balsa) . Consult 
a good biological source book for details on preparing insects to be pinned and 
prepared on the spreading board. 



-100- 



(ii) A simple, inexpensive spreading board can be made from a cardboard box. 
Remove the top and cut the ends as shown in the illustration. Then glue two pieces 
of cardboard to the box to complete the spreading board. 



Cardboard 

Box 




tardboard 
Slats 



-101- 



A5 . Beating Sheet * 




(1) Sheet and Supports 



a. Materials Required 

Components 

(1) Sheet and 
Supports 

b. Construction 

(1) Sheet and Supports 



Qll Items Required 

1 Heavy Cloth (A) 

2 Wooden Slats (I 



Sew 




Dimensions 

100 cm x 100 cm 

12 5 cm x 4 cm x 1.0 cm 

Fold back about 10 cm of the 
heavy cloth (A) (muslin will 
work) at each corner and sew a 
pocket into each such that the 
tips of the wooden slats (B) 
will fit into them. 



Detail 



*Adapted from Jens W. Knudsen, Biological Techniques , (New York: Harper and Row, 
1966), p 209. 



-102- 



c. Notes 

(i) The sheet is held under shrubbery and insects are shaken off onto it where 
they can easily be captured. 

(ii) Bamboo, wooden dowels, broom handles, etc. can be substituted for the 
wooden slats. In any case, the crosspieces can be removed after use to permit 
compact storage. 



-103- 



A6. Aspirator 




' (3) Intake Tube 



(1) Receptacle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Receptacle 



(2) Draw Tube 



(3) Intake Tube 



Qll Items Required 
Test Tube (A) 

2-Hole Stopper 
Glass Tube (C) 

Rubber Tube (D) 

Gauze (E) 
Tape (F) 

Glass Tubing (G) 



Dimensions 

15 cm long, 1 . 6 cm 
inside diameter 

To fit test tube 

6 cm long, 0.2 cm 
inside diameter 

35 cm long, . 3 cm 
inside diameter 

1 cm x 2 cm 

2 cm long 

16 cm long, 0.3 cm 
inside diameter 



b. Construction 



(1) Receptacle 



Plug the end of the test tube 
(A) with a two-hole stopper 



-104- 



(2) Draw Tube 

Glass (C) y. 

Tape (F) >- 

Gauze (E) y. 




Detail 



Use the tape (F) to hold the 
gauze (E) in place over the end , 
of the glass tube (C) . Be 
certain air still flows freely 
through the end of the tube. 
Insert the end of the tube 
through one of the holes in the 
stopper. Attach the end of the 
rubber tube (D) to the glass tube 
(C). 



(3) Intake Tube 



c. Notes 



Bend the glass tube (G) to an 
120° angle about 6 cm from one 
end, and insert this end into 
the remaining hole in the 
stopper. 



(i) The aspirator is a useful instrument when collecting insects which are too 
small or too fragile to be collected by hand. To operate, place the draw tube 
between one's teeth and the intake tube near the insect to be collected. The 
collector then sucks in and the insect is captured. The gauze prevents the insect 
from entering the draw tube. 

(ii) A glass bottle or vial may be used in place of a test tube, but in any case 
a tight-fitting stopper is required. The stopper may be either rubber or cork, 
and cotton may be used in place of the gauze. 



-105- 



A7 . Night Flying Insect Collector 



(2) Body 




-(1) Base 



a. Materials Reguirec 
Components 
(1) Base 



(2) Body 



Qll Items Reguired 

1 Wood (A) 

1 Electric Lightbulb 
Socket (Porcelain) (B) 

2 Electrical Wire (C) 

1 Electrical Plug (D) 

2 Wood (E) 
2 Wood (F) 

1 Hinge (G) 

4 Fine Wire Mesh (H) 

1 Thick Rubber Band (I) 

1 Glass Container with Lip (J) 

1 Light Bulb (K) 

2 Screw Eyes (L) 

1 Wire (M) 



Dimensions 

20 cm x 20 cm x 2 cm 

12 cm diameter 



50 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 



22 cm x 50 cm x 1.0 cm 
20 cm x 50 cm x 1 . cm 

2 cm x 17 cm 

500 ml 

100 watts 

2.5 cm long, 0.2 cm 
diameter 

60 cm long, 0.1 cm 
diameter 



-106- 



b. Construction 
(1) Base 



(2) Body 



1 Thin Sheet Metal (N) 

1 Wire (0) 

2 Wood Screws (P) 





10 cm x 10 cm 

10 cm long, 0.1 cm 
diameter 

1 cm long 

The electric light bulb socket 
(B) is centered on the base (A) 
and two holes are drilled through 
the base for the attachment of 
the electrical wires (C) to the 
terminals on the electric light 
socket. Attach the electrical 
wires to these terminals and 
extend them through the base. 
The socket is then screwed into 
place on the base using wood 
screws. Attach the electrical 
plug (D) to the wires to complete 
the base. 

The two pieces of wood (F) are 
nailed into place on opposite 
sides of the base. One of the 
pieces of wood (E) is nailed 
onto the third side of the base 
where it overlaps the two ends 
of the sides already attached. 
It is then nailed to the other 
two sides. Take the last piece 
of wood (E) and attach the hinge 
(G) to the bottom of it and to 
the bottom of the base so that 
it forms a door which opens 
downward. 



-107- 




Hinge (G) 



Side View 



z-+Ji 




re Together 
ong This Edge 



M*i 



Pattern 




Nail These 
Edges to Box 



Take the four pieces of wire 
mesh (H) and cut them to the 
pattern shown, then wire them 
together along their edges to 
form a square funnel. The 
opening at the bottom of the 
funnel (4 cm square) should be 
the same width as the diameter 
of the neck of the collecting 
bottle (J) used. Nail three of 
the edges of the funnel along 
the top edges of the fixed 
sides of the trap. Of course, 
do not nail the fourth edge to 
the door or the door will not 
open. 



Completed Funnel 



<SS) 



Collar 



Next, cut a collar from the piece 
of sheet metal (N) so that it 
will fit under the lip on the 
glass container (J) . Cut this 
collar in such a way so that it 



-108- 



Funnel 



Glass 
Container 
(J) 




Side View 



Wire (M) 




Collar 



Funnel 



Rubber 
Band ( 



<i 



Top View 



does not form a continuous 
circle, but instead has a break 
in it. Now, wrap the collar 
tightly around the neck of the 
glass container just under the 
lip. Pull the two free ends 
together and overlap them. Then 
punch a hole through the ends 
and place the piece of wire (0) 
through the holes and bend it so 
that it holds the collar tightly 
closed. The glass container 
can now be picked up by the 
collar without falling through 
it. Remove the collar, force 
the mouth of the glass container 
up through the bottom of the 
hole in the funnel, and replace 
the collar so that it holds the 
glass container in place. 

Place two screws (P) , one on 
the outside of the door about 
2 cm down from the top, and the 
other in the same position on 
the side opposite the door. 
Then, close the door and stretch 
the rubber band (I) from one 
screw to the other over the top 
to hold the door closed. 
Finally, attach the two screw 
eyes (L) to opposite corners on 
the sides of the top and secure 
the wire (M) to them, and screw 
the light bulb (K) into the 
socket. 



-109- 



c. Notes 

(i) To operate, simply hang the trap at night outside from a fixture (e.g., a 
tree limb), and attach the electrical wires to a power supply. Be sure to hangit 
in an area where there are a large number of night-flying insects. The light will 
attract the insects and they will fall into the glass container. When a sufficient 
number have become trapped in the container, place a wad of cotton soaked in 
carbon tetrachloride over the opening, thus killing the insects. 

(ii) By placing two hinges on the side of the door, it can be opened to the side 
if so desired. 



-110- 



SOIL ORGANISM COLLECTING APPARATUS 



Bl. Soil Organism Sieve 




Sieve 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Sieve 



b. Construction 



(1) Sieve 



Qll I tems Required 

2 Wood (A) 

2 Wood (B) 

1 Wire Screen (C) 




Dimensions 

30 cm x 10 cm x 2 cm 
2 6 cm x 10 cm x 2 cm 
30 cm x 30 cm 

Simply nail or screw the four 
wood boards (A,B) together to 
form a frame and nail the piece 
of screen (C) to the bottom of 
the frame. 



Frame 



c. Notes 

(i) Use the sieve to separate out soil organisms such as worms, grubs, etc., 
from the material in which they are living. 

(ii) Carefully choose the size of wire mesh used in the sieve. A mesh or screen 
with too fine a weave will become clogged with soil and rendered useless. a rela- 
tively wide mesh will work well if the soil is coarse, allowing the organisms to 
fall through the mesh while holding back the soil. 



-111- 



(iii) A frame for the sieve can also be made by knocking out the bottom from an 
old drawer or wooden box. 



-112- 



52. Soil Insect Trap 




(2) Funnel 



(1) Can 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Can 

(2) Funnel 

b. Construction 

(1) Can 

(2) Funnel 



Qll I tems Required 
1 Tin Can (A) 

1 Wire Mesh (B) 




Dimensions 

0.5 liter capacity 

About 15 cm x 15 cm 

Remove one end from a tin can 
(A). 

Cut a pattern for the funnel 
from the wire mesh (B) . The 
outside diameter of the pattern 
should be approximately 2 cm 
wider than the diameter of the 
can (A) used. 




Edges "Sewn" 
with Wire 



Connect the two edges of the 
cutout portion of the pattern by 
"sewing" them together with 
wire. This will result in a 
cone with a hole at the apex. 
Complete the soil insect trap 



-113- 



Wire 



W 




Wi re Mesh 
Funnel 



Can (A) 



Side View 



by inserting the funnel in the 
open end of the can and folding 
the excess wire mesh down around 
the outside of the can to hold 
it in place. If necessary, a 
piece of wire wrapped around the 
outside of the can and twisted 
tightly will help hold the 
funnel in place too. 



c. Notes 



(i) Place the trap in a hole in the ground so that the top edge of the trap is 
even with the soil level. Thus, small insects and other ground organisms crawling 
across the trap will fall through the hole in the funnel into the can. Check the 
can periodically for captured organisms. 

(ii) The trap can be varied by making the funnel portion from aluminum foil, 
waxed paper, or other materials which are smooth and will help prevent the organ- 
isms from crawling out of the trap. Also, dusting the inside walls of the can with 
fine powder (e.g., talcum powder) will prevent organisms from crawling up the 
walls and out of the cage. 



-114- 



B3 . Baermann Funnel 



(1) Funnel 




(2) sc 



(3) Clamp 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Funnel 



(2) Screen 



QU I tems Required 
Glass Bottle (A) 

Glass Tube (B) 

1-Hole Stopper (C) 
Rubber Tube (D) 

Fine Wire Mesh (E) 
Stiff Wire (F) 



Dimensions 

About 7 cm diameter, 
20 cm long 

5 cm long, . 5 cm 
inside diameter 

To fit bottle opening 

12 cm long 

7 cm diameter 

16 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 



(3) Clamp 



Screw Clamp (G) 



Chem/IV/A4 



-115- 



b. Construction 
(1) Funnel 




Cut Here 



Soda Pop Bottle 



Cut the top of a glass soda pop 
bottle (A) off (See CHEM/I/F2 
Force a short piece of glass 
tubing (B) through the one-hole 
stopper (C) and seal the open- 
ing with the stopper. Next, 
attach the rubber tube (D) to 
the glass tube. 



(2) Screen 




Ring 



Make a ring slightly smaller in 
diameter (i.e., about 5 cm 
diameter) than the bottle with 
the stiff wire (F) . Fold the 
edge of the circular piece of 
wire mesh (E) under the wire 
ring. The wire mesh will pro- 
bably be stiff enough to hold 
itself in place without being 
wired to the ring. 




^Fold Edges of 
Mesh Under 



(3) Clamp 



c. Notes 



Use the clamp (G) to seal the 
rubber tube airtight. 



(i) The Baermann funnel is designed to extract soil nematodes from soil. To 
use it, it must be supported by a ring stand. Clamp off the tubing, and let the 
end of the tube extend into a small vial or bottle. Set the wire mesh disc into 
the funnel, put a small cloth bag of soil on the disc, and fill the apparatus 
with water. After an hour or so, release the clamp to collect a small sample of 
water which can be examined for soil nematodes. (See illustration on next page.) 



-116- 



Funnel 




Glass 

Tube (B) 



Rubber 
Tube (D) 



— Cloth Bag of Soil 

Wire Mesh Disc 

Support with Ring 
Stand Here 



One-Hole Stopper (C) 
—Clamp (G) Here 



Bottle 



(ii) If commercial funnels of the correct size are available and inexpensive, 

they can be substituted for the bottle funnel. Also, the end of the rubber tube 

can be sealed off with a pencil stub or piece of wooden dowel if a good clamp is 
not available . 



B4 . Berlese Funnel 



-117- 




(1) Funnel 

(2) Steel Wool 




^ (3) Glass Jar 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Funnel 

(2) Steel Wool 

(3) Glass Jar 

b. Construction 

(1) Funnel 




Qll I tems Required 
1 Glass Bottle (A) 

1 Steel Wool (B) 

1 Glass Jar (C) 



Cut Here 



Dimensions 

About 7 cm diameter, 
20 cm long 

30 g 

50 ml capacity 

Cut the top of a soda pop bottle 
(A) off (See CHEM/I/F2 to make 
the funnel. Alternately, use a 
commercial glass or metal funnel, 
or make one using metal foil or 
heavy paper. 



(2) Steel Wool 



Place the steel wool (B) inside 
the funnel so that it blocks off 
the opening. 



-11? 



(3) Glass Jar 



Fill the jar (C) about 1/2 full 
of alcohol or formalin and place 
it directly under the funnel. 



c. Notes 



(i) To use the Berlese funnel, a ring stand and light source are needed. 
Support the funnel with the ring stand so that the neck of the funnel is directly 
over the glass jar. Place a 25 watt light directly above the funnel and close 
enough to the funnel that the heat from the bulb will warm the contents of the 
funnel. Place the soil sample in the funnel so that it rests on the steel wool. 
Pick out the larger soil organisms with forceps. The smaller organisms will be 
driven down by the light and heat of the bulb until they drop through the steel 
wool into the preservative in the jar. The apparatus should be left in place 
several days to insure that most of the organisms are collected. 



Ring 
Stand 




Light Source 



Funnel (A) 



Soil Sample 
Steel Wool (B) 



Jar (C) with Preservative 



-119- 



C. SMALL VERTEBRATE COLLECTING APPARATUS 



CI. Simple Box Trap 



(4) Stop 




(1) Body 



Front View 



(3) Door 



(2) Trip 



(2) T 



rip 



(4) Stop 



(3) Door 




(1) Body 



Back View 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Body 



(2) Trip 



(3) Door 



q u 


Items Required 


3 


Wood (A) 


1 


Wood (B) 


2 


Wood (C) 




Wire Mesh (D) 




Wood (E) 




Metal Hinge (F) 




Eyed Screw (G) 




String (H) 




Wood (I) 


4 


Round-headed Screws (J) 



Construction Board (K) 



Flat Metal (L) 



Dimensions 

60 cm x 2 cm x 1.0 cm 
58 cm x 2 cm x 1 . cm 
5 cm x 5 cm x . 5 cm 
20 cm x 22 cm 

17.5 cmx 55 cmx 
. 5 cm 

5 cm x 5 cm 

2 cm long 

85 cm 

10 cm x 4 cm x 1.5 cm 

Approximately 1 . cm 
long 

19 cm x 20.5 cm x 
0.2 5 cm 

15 cmx 1.5 cmx 0.5 
cm 



-120- 



(4) Stop 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 



Wood (A) 



2 Bolts (M) 
2 Nuts (N) 

4 Tacks (0) 
String (P) 
Rubber Band (Q) 
Wood (R) 
Bolt (S) 
Nut (T) 




Grooves 



1.25 cm long 
To fit bolts 

1.0 cm long 
7 cm 

6 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 
5 cm long 
To fit bolt 

Begin the body by cutting a 
goove 0.3 cm wide and 0.5 cm 
deep parallel to the end of 
two of the pieces of wood (A) 
This groove is 1.0 cm from the 
end. Nail or screw these two 
boards to the third board (A) . 



Wood yfB 




Top View 



In the corner of the board (B) 
to be used as the top, drill a 
hole 0.7 cm in diameter about 
3 cm from each edge, and drill 
a hole about 0.5 cm in diameter 
through the other end of the 
top, 1 . cm from the edge and 
centered. Set this board (B) 
aside until the trip (2) is 
completed. 



-121- 



Triangular" 
Block 



Top Board (B) 




Wire Mesh (D) 
(partial ly cut away) 



Seal off one end of the body by 
nailing the wire mesh (D) to it. 
Reinforce the corners with tri- 
angular pieces of wood gotten 
by cutting the wood pieces (C) 
in half diagonally. Again, do 
not seal the end until the 
trip (2) and top board (B) are 
in place. 



End View 




Cut Along 
This Line 



(2) Trip 



-Eyed Screw 




Side View (Cross-section) 



Detai 1 



Hinge (F) 




Hinge (F) 



Screw (J) Heads 



CS> 



Screw the eyed screw (G) into 
one end of the wood (E) about 
1 . cm from the edge and cen- 
tered. To the back of this 
board, fasten the hinge (F) 
which also should be about 1.0 
cm from the edge and centered. 
Next, fasten the other half of 
the hinge to the bottom of the 
body so that the board is 
centered in the bottom of the 
body (i.e., it should be 2.5 
cm from each end and 0.25 cm 
from each side of the body) . 
Use round-headed screws (J) so 
that the hinge cannot close 
completely flat. In this way, 
the trip will be held up at a 
slight angle, which is needed in 
the design of this trap. Alter- 
nately, the length and tension 
of the trip string (N) can be 
adjusted to hold the trip in 



-122- 



String (H 



Wire 
Mesh (D) 




Top (B) 



Side View (Cross-sect.On) 



the desired position without the 
necessity of using this type 
of hinge and screws. 

Now tie one end of the string to 
the eyed screw (G) in the trip 
(H). Run the other end of the 
string through the hole in the 
top board (B) of the body which 
may now be nailed or screwed 
into place. Also, the wire 
mesh (D) for the end of the 
body may be fastened in place 
after the top is finished. 



Drill Hole 

'at Angle 




0.75 



To complete the trip, cut a 
notch from the block of wood (I) 
and attach the free end of the 
string to the block by tying 
it through a hole drilled in 
the block. 



Wood Block (I) 




Side View (Cross-section) 



-123- 



(3) Door 



20.5 




'Metal Bar (L) 



Door 



Trip 



Cut a hole 4.25 x 1.0 cm in the 
construction board (K) 3 cm 
from the end of the board and 
centered. Next, using the nuts 
(N) and the bolts 90, bolt the 
flat metal bar (L) into position 
just under the hole. Holes will 
have to be drilled through the 
board for the bolt to go 
through. The door is now 
finished and should slide easily 
up and down in the notches in 
the sides of the body. 



Detail 



(4) Stop 



Hole 




Cut the piece of wood (R) as 
shown and drill a hole in the 
wood slightly larger in diameter 
than the bolt (S) used. 



-124- 




Hammer a tack (0) into each side 
of the stop (R) , and run a bolt 
(S) through the stop and the 
hole in the corner of the top. 
Screw the nut (T) loosely onto 
the bolt. Hammer two other 
tacks (0) into the top of the 
body, one to either side of the 
stop and slightly behind it. 
Finally, tie the piece of 
string (P) between the tack in 
the left side of the stop and 
the tack to the left in the top, 
and similarly attach the rubber 
band (Q) on the right side. 
Fix the tension in the rubber 
band so that the stop will be 
held out over the door when the 
door is closed, thus preventing 
the door from being raised 
after the trap has been sprung. 



Notes 



(i) To set the trap up, place it where small animals are 1 ikely to be found. 
Push the stop out of the way and put the door between the grooves in a raised 
position. Next, push the notched portion of the trip block through the hole in 
the door to ho Id the door up. Release the stop, allowing the rubber band to pull 
it against the door. At this point, the string attaching the trip block to the 
trip should be taut. Finally, place a suitable bait in the extreme rear of the 
cage on the tr tp. 



'Door 




Side View 
(Cross-section) 

Trap in "Set' Position 



-125- 



Because the round heads of the hinge screws hold the trip up at a slight angle, the 
animal entering the trap must move to the rear of the trap before the combination 
of its (the animal's) weight and leverage causes the rear of the trip to drop down, 
pulling the trip block back out of the hole in the door. The door then drops down 
in the grooves, the metal bar aiding in a faster drop. Finally, the stop is pulled 
out over the top of the door once the door is out of its way, and is held over the 
door because the rubber band pulls against the string. 




Door 



Side View 
(Cross-section) 

Trap in "Sprung" 
Position 



(ii) It may be desirable to modify the construction of this trap by making it 
with wire mesh sides as many animals are difficult to entice into enclosed spaces. 

(iii) This design can be altered in many ways, especially with respect to propor- 
tion, dimensions, and materials used, including plywood or other thin but strong 
construction materials. 



-126- 



C2. Potter Bird Trap * 



(2) Door 
(Screen Not 
Shown) 



(3) Trip 




( 1 ) Frame 
(Screen Not 
Shown) 



a. Materials Required 






Components 


flu. 


Items Required 


(1) Frame 


i 


Wood (A) 




4 


Wood (B) 




7 


Wood (C) 




4 

1 


Wire Screen (D) 
Wire Screen (E 



(2) Door 



(3) Trip 



Stiff Wire (F) 



1 Stiff Wire (G) 



Stiff Wire (H) 

Wire Screen (I) 

"U" Tack (J) 
Stiff Wire (K) 



Dimensions 

2 4 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

50 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

20 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

23 cm x 49 cm 

23 cm x 23 cm 

125 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 

60 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 

27 cm long, . 3 cm 
diameter 

22 cm x 22 cm 

1 cm long 

25 cm long, . 3 cm 
diameter 



* Adapted from Nuffield Foundation, Teacher ' s Guide III: The Maintenance of Life, 
(England: Longmans/Penguin Books, 1966) , p 201 . 



-127- 



"U" Tacks (L) 
Hood (M) 



b. Construction 



(1) Frame 



Wood 




Wood (A)- 



o-«- 



23 



h4 



24 



Top View 



(2) Door 



Wire 
Screen (I), 



0.5 




T. 



1 QHi long 

19 cm x 12 cm x 1 . cm 



Nail and glue the basic framework 
together as shown. Begin by 
nailing one piece of wood (C) to 
the ends of two long pieces (B) . 

20 Ndil four of the remaining short 
pieces (C) to the U-shaped piece 

_^t- already made. Nail one in an 
upright position at each end of 
each long piece (B) to form the 
comers of the trap. Next, 
nail the two remaining pieces of 
both the short (C) and long (D) 
wood to the ends of the four 
upright pieces to complete the 
basic trap framework. 

Drill holes the same diameter 
(0.3 cm) as the stiff wire (F) 
used for the door in the piece 
of wood (A) to act as "seats" 
for the door frame. Drill 
these holes 1.5 cm deep. Nail 
the four long pieces of screen 
(D) to the sides, bottom and 
top of the trap and nail the 
sguare piece (E) to the rear end 
to enclose all but the front of 
the trap in screening. 

Bend the ends of two pieces of 
wire (H) over about 2 cm from 
each end. Bend the ends of the 
other two pieces (H) around the 
first two pieces to form a 
square framework. Fold two 
edges of the wire screen (I) 
around two sides of the frame 



-126 



=^N 



23 



50 




Door 



Screen (I) 



Guide (F) 



_ Wood 
Frame 



and "sew" the screen together 
with wire . 

Bend the piece of wire (F) to a 
"U" shape. Slip the ends of 
this wire through the open ends 
of the wires in the door frame. 
The door should slide up and 
down easily with the U-shaped 
wire acting as a guide. Next, 
imbed the ends of the "U" into 
the holes in the front piece 
(A) of the wooden frame. They 
may be glued in place if neces- 
sary. When the door slides 
down the guide, it should 
effectively block the entrance 
of the trap with little or no 
gap. 



Front View 




"U" Tack 
(J) 



Side View 



Tack the end of the piece of 
wire (G) to the rear of the cage 
with a "U" tack (J) and bend 
it down until it touches the top 
of the door frame. Bend the 
remaining end around the wire 
(F) to help stabilize and sup- 
port the door frame. 



-129- 



(3) Trip 



'If 



19 



*:^\ 



"U" Tacks .) 



4 



T 

5 



Side View 



12 H 



Bend up 5 cm of the wire (K) to 
a right (90°) angle and bend 1.0 
cm of the other end of the wire 
to a right angle in the opposite 
direction. Tack the wire to 
the wood (M) with the three "U" 
tacks (L) as near to one of the 
12 cm edges as possible. 



C. Notes 

(i) To use the Potter bird trap, place it in a place where the desired type 
of bird is known to congregate. It may be necessary to anchor the trap in some 
manner in order to prevent it from being disturbed. The trap is set by pulling 
the sliding door all the way up and placing the trip inside the trap at such an 
angle that, when the door is lowered, the lower cross wire of the door rests on 
the bent portion of the trip wire. The slight pressure of the door on the trip 
should both hold the door up (and open) and keep the trip at a slight angle. 
Finally, bait the trap with a suitable attractant for the particular type of birds 
desired. A bird entering the trap for the bait will hop on the wooden part of the 
trip causing the wire to be pulled out from under the door which will drop down in 
place and trap the bird. 

(ii) This trap, unlike others, doesn't reguire the hunter to hide in a blind 
waiting for a bird to enter:. 

(iii) The dimensions of thiis trap can be altered according to the size of the 
birds being trapped. Also, the trap may be baited in such a way as to attract 
other animals besides birds.. 



-130- 



C3. Snare 



(1) Handle 




(2) Cord 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Handle 



(2) Cord 



b. Construction 
(1) Handle 



r- 



50 



(2) Cord 



(H 



Qll I tems Required 
1 Wooden Rod (A) 



-*+*■ 



35 



D 



Eyed Screws (B) 
Insulated Copper Wire (C) 



Washer (D) 
"U" Tack (E) 



-4*-15-*l 



Long 

End 




Short 
End 



Dimensions 

100 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

1 cm diameter opening 

250 cm long, 0.3 cm 
diameter 

3 cm diameter 

1 cm long 



Screw one eyed screw (B) 15 cm 
from the end of the wooden rod 

(A) and screw the second screw 

(B) 50 cm from the other end. 

Tie the cord (C) securely to 
the rod at a point approximately 
10 - 15 cm from the end. The 
short end should be at least 
10 cm long as it will be used 
again to be tied to the long end. 




Long End 



x: 



U-Shaped 
Tack (E) 



Run the long end of the cord up 
to the end of the rod and form 
a loop. Hold the loop in 
place with a U-shaped tack (E) . 



-131- 



^ 



Tie Ends Here 




Long End 




Long End 



c. Notes 



At the end of the loop, begin 
wrapping the long end of the 
cord tightly around the rod 
until the short end has been 
reached. At that point, tie 
the long and short ends securely. 

Extend the long end through the 
loop and then extend it back to 
form the snare. The long end 
is kept in position by extend- 
ing the ends through the eyes 
on the rod. When the long end 
of the cord extends through 
the second eyed screw, tie the 
large metal washer (D) to it to 
make a pull ring. 



(i) Use the snare to capture snakes, lizards, and other small animals which are 
difficult or dangerous to capture by hand. The loop must be placed over the 
animal's head, then pulled tight to hold it fast. 

(ii) Bamboo or other materials may be used instead of wood for the rod. Rope 
can be used instead of insulated wire, but the wire is better since it is stiff 
and this helps keep the snare loop open instead of hanging limp. 



-132- 



C4. Reptile Hook 



(2) Fixed 
Jaws 




(1) Handle 



(3) Movable 
Jaws 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Handle 



(2) Fixed Jaws 



(3) Movable Jaw 



Qll Items Required 

1 Wooden Dowel (A) 

1 Nail (B) 

2 Eyed Screws (C) 



Sheet Metal (D) 
Tape (E) 

Sheet Metal (F) 
Spring (G) 
Steel Wire (H) 
Washer (I) 
Bolt (J) 

Wing Nut (K) 

Tape (L) 

Rubber Tubing (M) 



Dimensions 

100 cm long, 1 . 5 cm 
diameter 

1 . 5 cm long, about 
0.2 cm diameter 

2 cm long, 1 cm 
diameter opening 

10 cm x 6 cm x . 1 cm 
About 50 cm 

10 cm x 9 cm x 0.1 cm 
12 cm x 0.5 cm 
100 cm long 

3 cm diameter 

. 4 cm diameter, 
2.5 cm long 

0.4 cm internal 
diameter 

About 50 cm 

7 cm long, 1 . cm 
diameter 



b. Construction 
(1) Handle 



30 



40 



Eyed 
'Screw (C) 



Nail (B) 



T=~^H 



Screw the two eyed screws (C) 
into the wooden dowel (A) so 
that the opening of the "eye" 
faces the ends of the dowel. 
Hamner the nail (B) into the 
opposite side of the dowel at 
the angle indicated. 



-133- 



. 4 Diameter 1 . 




h-3 h 



(2) Fixed Jaws 




Bend- 




Inner Edge 



Cut a notch into the end of the 
dowel nearest the nail. This 
notch needs to be 3 cm deep and 
about 0.15 cm wide (i.e., 
slightly wider than the sheet 
metal (F) used for the movable 
jaw) . Finally, drill a hole 
0.4 cm in diameter 1 cm from 
the end, and perpendicular to 
the notch. 

Cut the two fixed jaws to shape 
from the sheet metal (D) . Drill 
or punch a hole 0.5 cm in dia- 
meter through the wide portion 
of each jaw, centered, and 0.3 
cm from the flat edge. Cut a 
slit into each jaw about 0.7 
cm long and in approximately 
the position indicated. Bend 
the resulting point of metal in 
on one jaw and out on the other 
(i.e., in opposite directions) . 
To complete the jaws, cover at 
least the inner edge with tape 
(E) , cloth, etc., to protect 
the animals being collected 
from cuts. 



(3) Movable Jaw 




The movable jaw, made from sheet 
metal (F), is identical in shape 
to the fixed jaws except that 
one arm is extended for 4 cm. 
Three holes must be drilled or 
punched in the jaw. The two 
lower holes need to be 0.5 cm 
in diameter while the third 
need only be about 0.2 cm in 
diameter. Pad the inner edge of 
the movable jaw by slitting one 



-134- 



ft 




Tape (L) 



Rubber Tubing (M) 



side of a 7 cm long piece of 
rubber tubing (M) , and slipping 
it over the edge of the jaw. 
Use tape (L) to hold the tubing 
in place. Alternatively, the 
jaw may simply be padded with 
cloth and tape or other mater- 
ials. 



Bent Point 



yBoM (J) 




Wing Nut (K) 



Top View 



Bent Point 




Attach 
Spring (G)' 

Here 




Attach 
Wire (H) Here 



Side View 



Attach the jaws to the handle 
in this order: Run the bolt (J) 
through one fixed jaw, halfway 
through the handle, through the 
middle hole of the movable jaw, 
through the rest of the handle 
and through the second fixed 
jaw. Screw on the wing nut (K) 
to secure the whole assembly. 
Be certain that the "bent 
points" of the fixed jaws both 
point in, rather than out. Fix 
tension on the wing nut such 
that the jaws are not loose, 
but the movable jaw still can 
be freely moved. The "bent 
points" of the fixed jaws pre- 
vent them from rotating back- 
wards about the bolt. 

Next, attach the steel wire (H) 
to the upper hole of the movable 
jaw and run the free end through 
both eyed screws (C) . Fasten 
the free end to the washer (I) . 
Fasten one end of the spring (G) 
to the remaining hole in the 



-135- 



movable jaw, stretch out the 
spring, and fasten the free end 
to the nail (6) . The movable 
jaw should be held wide open, 
and the reptile hook is ready 
for use. [Note: If a spring 
of the correct size and tension 
is not available, one can 
easily be made by winding steel 
wire (about 0.08 cm diameter) 
around a pencil or other cylin- 
drical rod. ] 



Notes 



(i) Other materials such as bamboo, broom handles, etc., may be used for the 
handle. Also, a strong rubber band may be substituted for the spring. 

(ii) If the sheet metal used for the jaws is sufficiently stiff and strong, 
only one fixed jaw may be reguired instead of two. 



-136- 



D, PLANT COLLECTING APPARATUS 



Dl . Vasculum 



(3) Door 



(2) Top 




(1) Body 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Body 



(2) Top 



(3) Door 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Tin Can (A) 



1 Rope (B) 

1 Tin Sheet (C) 

1 Tin Sheet (D) 

1 Wood Dowel (E) 

1 Nail (F) 



Dimensions 

4 liter capacity 
(about 18 cm long by 
15 cm diameter) or 
larger 

50 cm x 0.5 cm 

15 cm diameter, 0.05 

cm thick 

14 cm x 8 cm x 0.05 cm 

2 . 5 cm long, 2 . 5 cm 
diameter 

3 cm long, . 3 cm 
diameter 



-137- 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 




Use a hacksaw to make two slits 
in the side of the can (A) . 
Each slit is 6.5 cm wide. The 
first slit is 5.5 cm from the 
bottom of the can, and the 
second slit is 7.0 cm from the 
first. Also, around the top 
edge (the top being the end 
which has been removed) make a 
series of slits approximately 
2 cm deep and 2 cm apart. 




Remove Shaded Portion 



After these initial slits have 
been made, remove part of the 
can between the two slits 
leaving about 1.5 cm of metal 
to either side of the opening. 
Further, bend down all of the 
flaps made in the top edge of 
the can except for three, 
specifically those three which 
are 90°, 180°, and 270° from a 
point directly above the door. 




Step 1 



Step 2 



Detail of 
Door Guides 



To make the guides for the door, 
first bend the 1.5 cm flaps out 
until they touch the can, then 
double them over so that the 
door will slide between them 
without falling out. This 
second step is best done by 
holding the door in place and 
bending the flaps over it. 

Finally, drill or punch two 
holes (about 1 cm diameter) in 



-138- 



(2) Top 



Bent Over Flap 




one side of the can. Pass an 
end of the rope (B) through 
each hole and knot the ends 
inside the can so that the 
rope cannot pull out. 

Merely cut out a circular piece 
of tin sheet (C) the same size 
as the end of the can. Place 
this piece on top of the bent 
down flaps and bend down the 
remaining three flaps. The top 
should slide in and out easily. 



(3) Door 




Slits 



w 



Handle 




Roll the sheet metal (D) slightly 
until the slight curvature con- 
forms to the side of the can. 
Make two slits 2 cm deep and 2 
cm wide in one end, and bend 
the flap down. Make the door 
handle from the dowel (E) and 
nail (F) . Simply drive the 
nail through the end of the 
dowel and through the door it- 
self. Flatten the point of the 
nail like a rivet to hold the 
handle in place. When finished, 
the door should slide easily 
between the guides on the side 
of the can. The flap on the 
end of the door serves to help 
hold down the top as well as 
preventing the top from sliding 
out by accident. 



-139- 



c. Notes 

(i) The vasculum is used to keep plant materials from excessively drying out 
when collecting in the field. Put the plants in the vasculum through the door 
when collecting, and remove them by removing the top. 

(ii) If large tin cans with replacable lids are available, these will do nicely 
and will eliminate the need for cutting out the door and lid. Also, see VII/A2 
(Sterilizer) for an alternate method of making the lid for a tin can of this type. 



D2(l), Plant Press (Field Type) 



-140- 




(1) Plates 



(2) Rubber Straps 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Plates 

(2) Rubber Straps 

b. Construction 

(1) Plates 



(2) Rubber Straps 



Qtl Items Required 

2 Wood (or Plywood) (A) 

2 Heavy Rubber Bands (B) 




Cut Strips 



Inner Tube 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 20 cm x 
1.0 cm 

2.5 cm wide, 15 cm 
diameter 



Cut the wood (A) to size. 
Smaller or larger sizes may be 
made according to personal pre- 
ference . 

Cut the rubber straps (B) from 
old automobile tire inner tubes. 




Section of 
Inner Tube 



-141- 



c. Notes 

(i) Use the field plant press to hold plant materials until they can be returned 
to the laboratory. Place the plants between several layers of newspaper, and 
place the newspapers between the press plates. Wrap the rubber straps around the 
plates and newspapers to hold them securely until they are returned to the labor- 
atory. 

(ii) Lengths of rope or belt-like straps can be used to tighten the press rather 
than the rubber straps. 



-142- 



D2 (2) . Plant Press (Laboratory Type) 



(3) Tightening Handle 



2 ) U tjppe. 




r Plate 



Lower Plate 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 
(1) Lower Plate 



(2) Upper Plate 



(3) Tightening 
Handles 



b. Construction 



(1) Lower Plate 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Plywood (A) 

2 Bolts (B) 

1 Plywood (C) 

2 Wood (D) 

2 Nuts (E) 

2 Wood (F) 

2 Washers (G) 




Dimensions 

25 cm x 20 cm x 1.25 
cm 

15 cm long, 0.7 cm 
diameter 

25 cm x 20 cm x 1.25 
cm 

15 cmx 1.75 cm x 
1.75 cm 

. 7 cm inside dia- 
meter 

15 cm x 1.75 cm x 
1.75 cm 

1 cm inside diameter, 

2 cm outside diameter 



Drill a hole through each end 
of the plywood (A) (regular 
wood may be used as well) 2 cm 
from the end and centered. The 
holes should be . 8 cm in dia- 
meter. Pass the bolts (B) 
through these holes as far as 
they will go. 



-143- 



(2) Upper Plate 



1.2 




Nail or glue the two wood strips 
(D) to the plywood(C) 1.2 cm from 
the ends and parallel to the 
edge. Drill a hole 0.8 cm in 
diameter through the wood strip 
and plywood at each end. Put 
the upper plate into position 
by running the two bolts (B) 
in the lower plate through the 
holes in it (the upper plate) . 



Top View 



M 



B 



25 



Side View 



(3) Tightening Handlefe 



Bolt (B) 
Handle (F) 



Washer 



Upper 
Plate (C)" 

Lower 
Plate (A) 



-L 



I 



Nut (E) 

-Wood Strip (D) 



I 



' — 1^> 

Side View 



Notes 



Drill a hole 0.8 cm in diameter 
through the center of each 
strip of wood (F) . Then, place 
a nut (E) directly over the 
hole in the wood and give it a 
sharp rap with a hamner. Re- 
move the nut from the depression 
thus formed, put some epoxy 
resin cement in the depression 
and glue the nut in place in 
the depression. When the glue 
has hardened, place a washer 
(G) over each bolt, and screw 
on the tightening handles. The 
laboratory plant press is now 
ready for use. 



(i) To use the laboratory plant press, place collected specimens between several 
layers of newspaper and tighten the two plates of the press together very tightly. 
Leave the plants in the press until they are thoroughly dried out. 



-144- 



V. AQUARIA AND TERRARIA 

A. CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION AQUARIA 

This is the most common type of aquarium and is used for student observation of 
the various relationships demonstrated by an ecosystem. Therefore, this type of 
aquarium is characterized by the use of glass. 

B. BREEDING AQUARIUM 



This is used to provide places for maintaining and growing a supply of aquatic 
organisms. Since the purpose is not primarily that of student observation, glass 
sides are not necessary. 

C. TEMPORARY AQUARIUM 

This is useful for short-term storage of fish and aquatic plants. Depending on 
the materials used, the temporary aquarium will suffice to hold plants and animals for 
approximately one to seven days, or much longer if care is taken in its construction. 

D . TERRARIA 



Any container in which plants can be grown will serve as a terrarium. The chief 
criterion for such a structure is that it be large enough to give the desired plants 
room to grow without crowding. 



-145- 



A. CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION AQUARIA 



Al . Quickly Made Demonstration Aquarium 




(1) Jar 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

b. Construction 

(1) Jar 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Glass Jar (A) 



Dimensions 

2 liters or larger 

Simply clean out the jar (A) , 
add water and fish. Sand and 
small plants may also be added. 

c. Notes 

(i) The number and size of fish which can be kept in a non-aerated aquarium 
varies, but a general rule is at least 2 liters of water per each centimeter of 
fish. Remember that the amount of oxygen available to the fish depends on the 
surface area of the water so that jars with narrow necks should be filled only 
to the point where the neck begins to narrow. 

(ii) This or any aquarium may be covered to prevent fish from jumpinq out, but 
remember to allow some air flow under the cover to insure that oxygen will dissolve 
from the air into the water. 



-146- 



A2 . Jug or Carboy Aquarii 




(1) Jug 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

( i ) Jug 

b. Construction 

( i ) Jug 




Qu 



Items Required 

Glass Jug or Carboy (A) 



Dimensions 

3-4 liters or larqer 




Remove the top portion of a 
jug or carboy (A) by either 
method described under item 
CHEM/I/F2. 



Remove 



c. Notes 

(i) When the neck is removed, add water, sand, plants and fish. Remember, 
at least 2 liters of water is required for each centimeter of fish. 



-147- 



B. BREEDING AQUARIUM 



Bl. Breeding Aquarium 




.(1) Drum 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Drum 

b. Construction 

(1) Drum 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Oil Drum (A) 



Dimensions 

100 liters or larger 

Remove the top from a large 
oil drum (A) or any similar 
container. Clean the drum 
thoroughly before adding water, 
plants, sand and fish. 

c. Notes 

(i) Since many fish breed best or only when plants are present in the aquarium, 
a light source may have to be placed over the top of the drum to provide for 
healthy plants. 

(ii) Most fish are extremely sensitive to water containing a high concentration 
of metallic ions, so the drum should be lined with a plastic bag, or the inside 
painted with non-leaded paint or other non-toxic coating. 



-14E 



C. TEMPORARY AQUARIUM 



CI. Plastic Bag Aquarium 



(3) Tape 




(2) Plastic Bag 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Can 



(2) Plastic Bag 

(3) Tape 

b. Construction 
(1) Can 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Rectangular Tin Can (A) 



1 Plastic Bag (or 
Sheeting) (B) 

2 Masking Tape (C) 
2 Masking Tape (D) 



Dimensions 

4 liter capacity or 
larger (at least 10 
cm x 15 cm x 2 5 cm) 

50 cm x 60 cm 



30 cm 
20 cm 

Cut the top and one side out of 
a four liter rectangular tin 
can (A) leaving about 1.5 cm of 
metal remaining to provide 
rigidity. Such cans can easily 
be cut with metal snips or 
shears. Begin each hole by 



-149- 



15 



1.5 



Top View 



Side View 




holding the can firmly, placing 
the edge of a screwdriver 
against the side, and striking 
the screwdriver sharply with a 
hammer. The sharp edges of the 
metal should be taped to pre- 
vent them from cutting the 
plastic. 



(2) Plastic Bag 




Place Plastic 
(B) in Can 




Fill With 
Water 



Use a large clear plastic bag 
or piece of plastic sheeting 
(B) . Carefully place the 
middle of the plastic on the 
bottom of the inside of the 
can (A) and spread the plastic 
out so it fills up tfie inside. 
Let the excess plastic extend 
above the can. Next, carefully 
pour water into the center of 
the plastic until the can is 
filled to the level desired. 



(3) Tape 



Use the four pieces of masking 
tape (C,D) that hold down the 
excess plastic sheeting. Water- 
proof plastic tape is recom- 
mended instead of masking tape 
if it is available. 



-150- 



c. Notes 

(i) With this design, fish and other aquatic organisms can be easily viewed 
while the three sides of the can provide excellent rigidity. Gravel, plants, 
rocks, etc., may be placed in the aquarium to provide a more natural environment. 



Dl. Simple Terrarium 



-151- 



D. TERRARIA 



(1) Jar 




(2) cc 



' (3) Stand 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

(2) Cover 



(3) Stand 
b. Construction 



(1) Jar 



(2) Cover 



(3) Stand 



q u Items Required 

1 Glass Jar (A) 

1 Plastic Sheetinq (B) 

1 Adhesive Tape (C) 

1 Cardboard Box (D) 




Dimensions 

4 liters or larger 

Approximately 12 cm 
diameter 

40 cm lonq 

15 cm x 15 cm x 10 cm 



Select a wide-mouthed qlass 
jar (A) , the larger the jar and 
the wider the mouth, the better. 

Tape a circular piece of 
plastic sheeting (B) over the 
mouth of the jar with the tape 
(C) to make it fairly airtight. 

Cut two semicircular pieces 
from the cardboard box (D) so 
the terrarium can be set on it 
without rolling off. 



-152- 



C. Notes 

(i) Fill the bottom of the terrarium with rich soil and add plants or seeds. 
The plastic cover will prevent moisture loss and permit some gas exchange. The 
jar lid may be used instead, but it has a tendency to rust. 

(ii) More durable stands made from metal or wood may be constructed if desired. 



-153- 



D2 . Glass Terrarium 




(3) Sides 



(1) Base 



(2) Plaster of 
Paris 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Base 

(2) Plaster of Paris 

(3) Sides 



Qu Items Required 

1 Tin Can (A) 

— Plaster of Paris (B) 



b. Construction 
(1) Base 



2 



Glass Plates (C) 

Glass Plates (D) 

Plastic Sheet (E) 
Tape (F) 




Dimensions 

32 cm x 22 cm x 5 cm 



30 cm x 20 cm x 0.3 
cm 

20 cmx 20 cm x 0.3 
cm 

35 cm x 25 cm 



Cut the base from a rectanqular 
tin can (A) to the approximate 
dimensions qiven. Adequate 
bases can also be made from 
wood, cardboard, sheet metal, 
etc. 



-154- 



(2) Plaster of Paris 



(3) Sides 




Plaster of 
Paris (B) 



Partial Cross-Section 



c. Notes 



Mix about 1 liter of dry plaster 
of Paris (B) with enough water 
to make it workable but stiff. 

Spread the plaster of Paris (B) 
thickly around the sides of the 
base (A) . Set the plates of 
glass (C,D) in the plaster while 
it is wet. Tape the corners 
where the glass plates come to- 
gether with tape (F) to hold 
the sides upright while the 
plaster is drying. Cover the 
terrarium with the plastic 
sheet (E) when plants are kept 
in it to prevent moisture loss. 



(i) The dimensions of this terrarium may be varied in order to meet special 
needs or to fit materials available. 

(ii) Plants may be placed in the terrarium in pots or planted in soil. If 
they are planted in soil, be certain that the plaster used is impervious to water. 



D3 . Plant Growth Chamber 



(3) Plastic 
Cover 




(2) Fi 



(1) B £ 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Base 



q u Items Required 

1 Wood (A) 

2 Wood (B) 

2 Wood (C) 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 25 cm x 2 cm 

27 cmx5 cmx 1.0 
cm 

25 cmx 5 cmx 1.0 

cm 



(2) Frame 



2 Soft Wire (D) 



2 Soft Wire (E) 



4 Wire (F) 



75 cm long, 0.2 cm 
diameter 

25 cm long, 0.2 cm 
diameter 

10 cm long, 0.1 cm 
diameter 



(3) Plastic Cover 



Transparent Plastic 
Sheeting (G) 



30 cm x 30 cm 



Tape (H) 



-15€ 



b. Construction 



(1) Base 




Nail or glue the four rectangu- 
lar pieces of wood (B,C) to the 
square piece (A) . Drill four 
holes, 0.2 cm diameter, in the 
square piece (A) , one hole near 
each corner of the wood. 



Base 



(2) Frame 




h~ 25 — H 




Bind This 
Joint 
with Wire 



Bend the two longest pieces of 
soft wire (D) into a "U" shape, 
and insert the ends into the 
holes in the base. Fasten the 
shorter pieces of soft wire (E) 
to the frame by bending about 
1 cm of each end around the 
bends in the longer wires (D) . 
Bind the joints together with 
the short, thinner wires (F) . 



Detail 



-157- 



(3) Plastic Cover 



n 



Cut a piece of transparent 
plastic sheeting (G) to the 
pattern shown or use five 
separate pieces of sheeting. 
Whether using the single or 
separate sheets, cover the frame 
with plastic and seal the joints 
between the sheeting with tape 
(H) . Leave one side of the 
sheeting loose to be used as a 
"door" in order to easily 
remove the plants. 



c. Notes 

(i) Plants may be placed in the chamber in pots or soil may be placed in the 
base in order to hold the plants. 

(ii) Dimensions for the plant growth chamber may be altered in any way depending 
upon the purposes to which it will be put. Especially, the base needs to have 
more depth than 3 cm if plants are to be grown in soil rather than pots. 



VI. CAGES 

A. GLASS CAGE S 

These cages, made wholly or largely of gla<§<89 be used to house a large variety 
of small animals, from insects to small mammals. 

B. WOODEN CAGE S 

Two wooden cages are offered, one to house insects and the other designed for small 
mamals or birds .Both are somewhat more elaborate and permanent than their eguivalent 
glass cages. 

C. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED CA GES 

The vivarium and egg incubator are heated with light bulbs to serve the needs of 
animals and eggs which require relatively higher temperatures to live or hatch, 
respectively. Use a thermostat to control the internal temperature of heated cages 
and incubators, especially in classrooms which are not themselves thermostatically 
temperature controlled. 



-15< 



A. GLASS CAGES 



Al . Glass Jar Cag e 




-(2) Top 



(1) Jar 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

(2) Top 



b. Constructi on 



(1) Jar 



(2) Top 



Qu I tems Required 
1 Glass Jar (A) 

1 Glass Jar Top (B) 

1 Wire Screening (C) 



Dimensions 

4 liters capacity 
or larger 

To fit jar 

Same diameter as jar 
top 



Thoroughly clean the large 
glass jar (A) . Select one with 
as large a mouth as possible. 

Cut out a circular piece from 
the metal top (B) of the glass 
jar. The diameter of the hole 
in the top should be about 1 
cm less than that of the top 
itself. 



-160- 




Next, cut out a circular piece 
of wire screen (C) the same 
diameter as the top. Insert 
this wire screen inside the 
top and glue it in place if it 
does not stay in place by itself. 



C. Notes 

(i) If the wire screening is cut to a diameter very slightly larger than that 
of the metal top, it will tend to stay in place within the top, and doesn't need 
to be cemented. In fact, once the top is screwed to the jar, the screen will be 
held tightly between the glass and top, and no cement is necessary. 

(ii) Grass, sand, soil, twigs, etc., can be added to this cage depending on 
what type of animal is to be kept. If small amphibians are housed in it, lay it 
on its side and partially fill it with water. Most amphibians are best housed in 
shallow aquaria, however. 



-161- 



A2. Jar Cage Shelf * 




(2) Rests 



(1) Frame 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Frame 



(2) Rests 



b. Construction 



(1) Frame 



Wood (C). 



Plywood (B) 



Plywood (A) 



q u Items Required 

1 Plywood (A) 

2 Plywood (B) 

2 Wood (C) 

1 Wood (D) 

1 Wood (E) 




Dimensions 

18 cm x 47 cm x 1.0 
cm 

18 cm x 15 cm x 1.0 
cm 

4 cm x 47 cm x 1.0 cm 

4 cm x 45 cm x 1.0 cm 
2 cm x 47 cm x 1.0 cm 



Nail or screw the two small 

pieces of plywood (B) to the 
ends of the large piece (A). 
Nail one of the wood strips (C) 
to the back with the lower edge 
even with the back. Screw the 
other strip (C) to the top to 
act as a carrying handle. 



Back View 



* Adapted from Richard E. Barthelemy, e t . al . , Innovations in Equipment and Techniques 

for the Biology Teaching Laboratory, (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1964), p 28. 



-162- 



(2) Rests 



7 Diameter 




4 5 



Wood Strip (D) 



6 Diameter 



47 



Wood Strip (E) 




Wooden rests are needed to pre- 
vent the jar cages from rolling. 
Cut four arcs spaced 10 cm on 
center from the wide piece of 
wood (D) . The diameter of the 
arcs should be the same as that 
of the body of the jar cages 
(in this description, the jars 
used had a body diameter of 
7 cm and a neck diameter of 
6 cm) . 



' i 



Side View 
(Cross-section) 



•Jar 



Similarly, cut four arcs of 
the same diameter as the neck 
of the bottle (in this case, 
6 cm) from the narrow strip 
(E) , also 10 cm on center. Nail 
the wide strip (D) to the sides 
and base about 3 cm from the 
back strip. Nail the narrow 
strip (E) to the front with its 
lower edge even with the base. 



C. Notes 

(i) Use this item as a storage rack for several jar cages (VI/A1) . The handle 
permits several cages to be carried with little disturbance. 

(ii) All dimensions given here are subject to change depending on the size, 
shape, and number of jar cages to be stored. 



-163- 



A3 . Cockroach Cage * 




(1) Cage 




(2) Food Container 



' (3) Watering Device 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 

(1) Cage 

(2) Food Container 



b. Construction 



(1) Cage 



(2) Food Container 



(3) Watering Device 



Items Reguired 

Glass Jar Cage 
(VI /Al) (A) 

Jar Top (B) 



(3) Watering Device 1 Glass Vial (C) 



1 Cotton (D) 



Dimensions 

At least 1.0 liter 
capacity 

2-3 cm diameter, 
1 cm deep 

4 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

Small plug 

Use the Glass Jar Cage (VI/A1) 
(A) as is. 

A small jar top (B) will hold 
the small amount of food 
necessary for small insects 
like cockroaches. 

Insert the cotton plug (D) into 
the open end of the vial (C) 
containing a small amount of 
water. The cotton will stay 



* Adapted from Richard E. Barthelemy, et . al . , Innovations in Eguipment and Technigues 
for the Biology Teaching Laboratory, (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1964), p 22-23. 



-164- 



damp and provide water for the 
insects . 



c. Notes 



(i) Ifdesired, the upper portion of the jar can be coated with talcum powder 
to prevent the insects from crawling out when the jar is open. 

(ii) Providing small objects which the insects can climb on or conceal them- 
selves in is recommended. 



-165- 



A4 . Housefly Cage * 




(1) Cage 

(2) Watering Device 

(3) Food Container 
(4) Culture Medium 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 

( 1 ) Cage 

(2) Watering Device 



(3) Food Container 



(4) Culture Medium 



b. Construction 



(1) Cage 



(2) Water Device 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Glass Jar Cage 
{ VI/A1) (A) 

1 Glass Jar (B) 

1 Absorbent Paper (C) 

1 Jar Top (D) 

1 Culture Medium (E) 



Dimensions 

4 liters or larger 



Approximately 25 ml 

Approximately 10 cm x 
3 cm 



4 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

50 ml or enough to 
fill the cage to a 
depth of approximately 
2 cm 



Use the Glass Jar Cage (VI/A1) 
(A) as is. Be sure to select a 
glass jar with as wide a mouth 
as possible. 

This is merely a small glass 
jar (B) or other small container 
which holds a "wick" of absor- 
bent paper (C) . Water in the 
jar will soak into the paper 



*Adapted from Richard E. Barthelemy, et . al., Innovations in Equipment and Technigues 
in the Biology Teaching Laboratory, (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1964), p 23. 



-166- 



where it can be obtained by 
flies and other flying insects. 

(3) Food Container A small jar top (D) will suffice 

as a container for food for 
the flies. 

(4) Culture Medium This is a growth medium (E) 

for the insect larvae, and 
should contain all the necessary 
growth ingredients . 

c. Notes 

(i) For suitable growth media for houseflies , see the following BSCS publica- 
tions: Barthelemy et . al.. Innovations in Equipment and Techniques for the 
Biology Teaching Laboratory ; and Glenn, The Complementarity of Structure and 
Function (BSCS Laboratory Block) . 



-167- 



A5. Cylinder Cage 




(1) Cylinder Cage 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 
(1) Cylinder Cage 



b. Construction 

(1) Cylinder Cage 



c. Notes 



q u Items Reguired 

1 Potted Plant (A) 

1 Lamp Chimney (B) 

1 Cloth Mesh (C) 

1 Rubber Band (D) 



Dimensions 

8 cm diameter, 
30 cm long 

10 cm diameter 



This is a quickly made cage. 
Simply put the lamp chimney 
(B) or other large diameter 
glass tube over the potted 
plant (A) . Add the insects, 
and cover the top with cloth 
mesh (C) or gauze held in place 
with the rubber band (D) . 



(i) This is a good, simple cage in which to rear insects which feed on plants. 



A6. Jar Wormery 



-168- 




(1) Jar 



(2) Medium 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

(2) Medium 



b. Construction 



(1) Jar 



(2) Medium 



Qu I tems Required 



Glass Jar (A) 

Sand (B) 
Leaf Mold (C) 
Loam (D) 



Dimensions 
1-4 liters 

1/4-1 liter 
1/4-1 liter 
1/4-1 liter 



Thoroughly clean the glass 
jar (A) . 

Each layer of the medium should 
have a volume approximately 
one fourth that of the total 
for the jar. The bottom layer 
is sand (B) , the middle is 
leaf mold (C) , and the top 
layer is loam (D) . 



c. Notes 

(i) Place the worms in the wormery along with some dead leaves, lettuce, 
carrots, etc. Keep the contents damp. 



-169- 



A7 . Jar Cage 



Q 




(2) Water Bottle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

(2) Water Bottle 



Qu I tems Required 

1 Large Glass Jar (A) 

1 Glass Tube (B) 

1 Vial (C) 

1 1-Hole Stopper (D) 



b. Construction 



(1) Jar 



(1) Jar 



Dimensions 

4 liter capacity 

25 cm long, . 5 

cm outside diameter 

50-100 ml capacity 

To fit vial 



Use a large capacity glass 
jar (A) with a metal or plastic 
lid. Punch several holes in 
the lid for ventilation. Make 
certain one of the holes is 
slightly larger in diameter 
than the glass tube (B) used 
in the water bottle. 



-170- 



(2) Water Bottle Heat the glass tube (B) about 

7 cm from one end and make a 
slight bend in it (about 30°). 
Fire polish this end until the 
opening constricts very slightly. 
Insert the other end of the 



==5^F30° 



Glass Tube (B) f" ZL n re . tube through the one-hole 



Polish 



stopper (D), and plug the vial 
(C) with the stopper. Insert 
the completed water bottle 
through a hole in the lid of 
the jar. Be sure the tip of 
the glass tube is low enough for 
the animals to reach. 



c. Notes 



(i) This cage is designed for small mammals like mice or gerbils. Spread a 
layer of sawdust or newspaper shreds on the bottom to absorb wastes. Fill the 
water bottle and the animals soon learn to lick water from the end of the tube. 
Pieces of food can be dropped through the holes in the lid. 

(ii) This cage is meant to be a temporary, not permanent, container for small 
mammals. Large jars of 4 liter capacity may be obtained from restaurants and 
other places which buy food in large guantities. 



A8 . Box Wormery 



-171- 



(2) Glass 




(Dbc 



a. 


Materials Required 










Components 


Qu 


Items 


Required 




(1) Box 


1 


Wood 


(A) 






2 


Wood 


(B) 






1 


Wood 


(C) 



(2) Glass 



Window Glass (D) 



Dimensions 

25 cmx 25 cmxl OH 
25 cm x 2 cm x 15 cm 
21 cm x 2 cm x 15 cm 

2 3 cm x 15 cm x 
. 3 cm 



b. Construction 



(1) Box 




With a saw, cut a qroove 1.0 
cm deep and 1.0 cm from the 
end of the two pieces of wood 

(B) . These grooves should be 
slightly wider (about 0.4 cm) 
than the glass (D) used. Nail 
these two pieces and the piece 

(C) to the base (D) to form an 
open-ended box with the two 
grooves facing each other, 

Insert the glass (D) into the 
grooves in the sides of the 
box. The box wormery is now 
complete. 

C. Notes 

(i) Put a 5 cm deep layer of sand in the box, cover this with 5 cm of leaf 
mold, and finally cover this with about 5 cm of loam. Add worms, dead leaves, 
pieces of lettuce and carrots to the top. Cover the glass front with dark paper 



(2) Glass 



-172- 



or cloth and keep the soil damp. After several days, worms and tunnels should be 
visible when the paper or cloth is removed. 

(ii) There is no real need for the glass plate to be removable so all the joints 
between the wood and glass can be sealed with waterproof sealant (e.g., pitch, 
caulk) . 

(iii) If it is desired to simply raise worms rather than observe them, then the 
glass may be omitted and any suitable box can be used for the wormery. 



-173- 



A9. Ant Observation Cage 



(3) c 



over 




~(1) Body 



(2) Support 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Body 



(2) Support 

(3) Cover 

b. Construction 
(1) Body 



q u Items Required 

2 Wood (A) 

1 Wood (B) 

2 Glass Plates (C) 



6 
3 


Tape (D) 
Tape (E) 


2 


Wood (F) 


1 
1 


Wood (G) 
Nail (H) 




Dimensions 

13 cm x 2 cm x . 7 cm 

23 cm x 2 cm x . 7 cm 

23 cm x 15 cm x 
. 3 cm 

19 cm x 2 cm 

27 cm x 2 cm 

7 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

1 9 cm x 2 cm x . 7 cm 

4 cm long, . 3 cm 
diameter 



Glue, nail, screw or otherwise 
fasten the two short pieces of 
wood (A) to the ends of the 
longer piece (B) . When the 
glue has dried, place the wood 
frame between the two pieces 



-174- 




of glass (C) forming a "sand- 
. . wich". Use the six short pieces 

,Glass (C) 

- Bodv of ta P e (°) t0 tape each end 

• Glass (C) together and use the three long 

pieces of tape (E) to tape the 

bottom. 




Tape 



(2) Support 




Cut a notch 1 . 4 cm wide and 
1 . cm deep into the center of 
each wooden support (F) . Set 
the body into place. 



(3) Cover 



V 



Drill Hole 



Detail 



1 





T 






,.. 




~~^~~ n Detail 





Drill a hole approximately 0.3 
cm in diameter through the 
middle of the piece of wood 
(G) . Cut off a small portion 
of each end so that the ends 
are slightly tapered. This 
cover should now effectively 
seal the body, and the wedge 
shape of the cover insures 
that it need not be perfectly 
accurate in order to seal the 
cage. Complete the ant obser- 
vation cage by sticking the 
nail (H) in the hole. 



-175- 



c. Notes 

(i) Prepare the cage for use by filling it to within 2 - 3 cm of the top with 
soil. The soil should be firm, but not tightly packed. Add the ants (include a 
"queen" ant), and feed them by dropping moistened sugar, bread crumbs, etc., 
through the hole in the cover. Keep the cage covered when not actually observing 
the ants as this will encourage their tunneling activity. 

(ii) The soil ought to be kept moist, so the cage should be taped with water- 
proof tape. Taping allows the cage to be easily dismantled, cleaned and 
reassembled. 

(iii) Ant observation cages of different dimensions from those given here can be 
made, but the basic design need not be altered. 



-176- 



A10. Glass Cage 



(2) Glass 




(1) Frame 



a. Materials Requir 


ed 






Components 




Qu 


Items Required 


(1) Frame 




1 


Plywood (A) 






4 


Wood (B) 






a 


Wood (C) 


(2) Glass 




32 


Nails (D) 






4 


Glass (E) 



Glass 



Dimensions 

30 cm x 30 cm x 
1.0 cm 

2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

2 4 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

2.5 cm long 

25.5 cm x 18.75 cm x 
0.3 cm 

25.5 cm x 25.5 cmx 
0.3 cm 



b . Construction 

(1) Frame 




Use the plywood (A) as the cage 
base. Screw the four short 
pieces of wood (B) to the base 
from the back side of the base 
so that each of their edges is 
1 . cm from the edge of the 
base. Nail four of the re- 
maining pieces (C) to the base 
(A) and uprights (B) , between 
the uprights and 1 . cm from 
the edge of the base. 



-177- 



Drill Halfway 




Drill Through 




(2) Glass 



y 



Hole 



Bent Nail 

7^ 



Side View 



Drill three holes (0.2 cm in 
diameter) through each of the 
four remaining pieces of wood 
(C) . Space the three holes 
about 6 cm apart and . 5 cm 
from one edge. In one of these 
pieces of wood, drill two addi- 
tional holes 0.2 cm in diameter. 
Drill them 0.5 cm from the same 
edge the other three holes are 
near, but only drill them half- 
way through the wood. Nail 
these four pieces to the 
uprights so that the holes are 
parallel to the base, and the 
holes must be closest to the 
top edge of the wood rather 
than the bottom. These three 
holes serve to ventilate the 
cage. 

Position one of the glass 
pieces (E) against the side of 
the frame so that it overlaps 
the edges of the frame by about 
0.75 cm on all three sides. 

Drive four nails (D) , two per 

(D) 

vertical side, into the frame 
as close to the glass as 
possible. Only drive them in 
about halfway and remove the 

,pi a _c If) glass. Bend each nail over at 
right angles, and replace the 
glass. The nails should over- 

. lap the glass and hold it 

upright against the frame. 
Nail two more nails (D) above 
the glass and bend them down in 
a similar manner to keep the 
glass side firmly in place. Be 



v-" 1 



-17! 




careful not to break the glass. 

Fasten the remaining piece of 
glass (F) to the top in a 
similar manner as was done with 
the sides. Nail six nails (D) , 
two per side, and bend them 
over to hold the glass in place. 
Put two nails in the holes in 
the remaining side of the frame. 
These two nails should slip 
easily in and out the holes 
so that they can be removed and 
the top glass plate removed by 
sliding it out from under the 
bent nails. Do not bend these 
last two nails . 



c. Notes 

(i) This cage is designed primarily to house small reptiles (especially lizards 
and snakes) and other small, non-gnawing animals. The bottom of the cage can be 
filled with 1.5 - 2 cm of clean sand or gravel. Ifburrowing animals are to be 
kept, build the bottom of the frame higher so that the sand or gravel may be made 
deeper. Water may be provided in a jar lid and food simply dropped in from the 
top. 

(ii) The dimensions of this cage can easily be altered depending on the number, 
size, and habits of the animals to be housed in it. 

(iii) If it is so desired, a metal tray can be fashioned for the bottom of the 
cage to hold the sand or gravel. This makes the cage much easier to clean as the 
tray can simply be lifted out of the cage, the sand or gravel cleaned by running 
it through a seive, and replacing it. The tray prevents the wood from absorbing 
liquid wastes and spilled water and food. The pattern given here will fit the 
cage as described above. (See illustration on next page.) 



-179- 



2 4 



+ 2 1 



24 



Fold the pattern along the dotted lines to the following " ' 



Seal 




Flange 



Seal the inside corner joints with a waterproof sealant (e.g., pitch) and set the 
tray in place in the bottom of the cage. The flanges should overlap the bottom 

portion of the frame. 



-180- 



B. WOODEN CAGES 



Bl, Wooden Frame Cage 



(2) Door 




1) Frame 



(3) Screening 
(Omitted for 
clarity) 




a. Materials Reguired 
Components 
(1) Frame 



(2) Door 



(3) Screening 



On 


Items Reguired 


: 


Wood (A) 


6 


Wood (B) 


2 


Wood (C) 


2 


Wood (D) 


2 


Wood (E) 


2 


Hinges (F) 


4 


Nails (G) 


2 


Rubber Bands (I 


1 


Wire Mesh (I) 


3 


Wire Mesh (J) 


1 


Cloth (K) 


1 


Rubber Band (L 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 25 cm x 1.0 cm 

25 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 
21 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

27 cm x 3 cm x 1.0 cm 
19 cm x 3 cm x 1 . cm 
About 3 cm x 2 cm 
2 cm long 

24 cm x 24 cm 

26 cm x 24 cm 
85 cm x 25 cm 



-181- 



b. Construction 



(i) Frame 



Wood (B) 



/Wood (C) 




Glue, nail, or screw four of the 
long pieces of wood (B) to the 
four corners of the square 
piece (A) to form the uprights 
of the cage. Nail the two 
remaining long wooden pieces 
(B) to the tops of adjacent 
uprights. Then, nail the two 
short pieces (C) into place to 
complete the basic cage frame. 



(2) Door 




-Hinge (F) 



Glue, nail, or screw the short 
pieces of wood (E) between the 
long pieces (D) to form the 
frame for the door. Attach two 
small hinges (F) to the back 
of the door. 



-182- 




Front View 



Frame 




Nail (G) 




Door 



Nail (G) 



Rubber Band (H) 



Next, fasten the door to the 
frame by use of the two hinges. 



To keep the door shut, hammer 
nails (G) at both top and 
bottom of the door and frame. 
When the door is shut, wrap a 
strong rubber band (H) around 
each set of nails to keep the 
door shut. 



Detail 



(3) Screening 



f 



:> * * t 1 t . 



Side View 



F r ame 



Screen (J) 



Tacks 



Attach the three pieces of 
screening (J) (cloth mesh may 
also be used) to the three 
sides and the fourth (I) to the 
top of the frame by gluing 
or tacking them in place. 
Liberal use of glue helps seal 
the joint between the screen 
and wood, especially if cloth 
mesh is used instead of wire 
mesh. 



-183- 




Sew Here 



5 (circumference) 



Sew the piece of cloth (K) along 
the short (25 cm) edge to make 
a kind of tube or "sleeve". 
Then, glue one end all around 
the inside edge of the door, 
making certain there are no 
gaps in the glue seam. 



Frame 




Detail 



' ■ * ■ ■ ■ »--- 



Cloth Sleeve (K) 



'Glue 



Rubber Band (L) 



■ »«■■■■- 




^-Cloth 
Sleeve (K) 



To complete the cage, close 
and latch the door, twist the 
protruding end of the cloth 
tube tight, and close it off 
with the rubber band, (L) . 



Side View 



c. Notes 

(i) The door can be opened to allow the cage to be cleaned, rearranged, etc. 
However, when the cage contains insects, items such as food, water, and the 
insects themselves can be put into and taken out of the cage by undoing the rubber 
band, slipping one hand through the cloth sleeve into the cage, and holding the 
cloth tightly around the arm in the sleeve with the other hand; this method pre- 
vents the insects from escaping. 



-184- 



(ii) See insect cages VI/A3 and VI/A4 for making watering and feeding devices 
for insects. 

(iii) Since cloth is used for the sleeve and may be used for the sides, keep 
only insects or other small animals which are unable to chew their way through 
cloth in this cage. 



B2, Wire Cage 



-185- 



(5) Water . 
Bottle 



(1) Frame 



(4) Wire Mesh (Omitted 

for clarity) 




-(3) dc 



' (2) Tray 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Frame 



(2) Tray 

(3) Door 



(4) Wire Mesh 



(5) Water Bottle 



4 
4 
3 
4 



q u Items Required 
1 Plywood (A) 



Wood (B) 
Wood (C) 
Wood (D) 
Wood (E) 

Sheet Metal 



2 


Wood (G) 




2 


Wood (H) 




1 


Wire Mesh 


(I) 


6 


Nails (J) 






Wire Mesh 


(K) 




Wire Mesh 


(L) 




Wire Mesh 


(M) 



Vial (N) 

1-Hole Stopper (0) 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 30 cm x 
0.5 cm 

20 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

21 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

26 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 
16 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

30 cm x 30 cm x 
0.05 cm 

2 8 cm x 3 cm x 1.0 cm 
18 cm x 3 cm x 1.0 cm 
2 8 cm xl8 cm 
2.5 cm long 

23 cm x 62 cm 
2 3 cm x 28 cm 
20 cm x 26 cm 

50-100 ml capacity 
To fit vial 



-186- 



1 Glass Tube (P) 



1 Stiff Wire (Q) 



b. Construction 
(1) Frame 




10 cm long, 0.7 cm 
outside diameter, 0.5 
cm inside diameter 

About 2 cm long 



Nail or screw the four 
20 cm pieces of wood (B) 
onto the four corners of 
the piece of plywood (A) 
used as the base. Make 
certain they are even 
with the edges of the 
base. Next, nail the 
four 21 cm pieces (C) 
20 into position between 
the. upright pieces, two 
at each side of the cage. 
Nail the lower ones to 
both the base and up- 
rights. Nail the three 
26 cm pieces (D) between 
the uprights, one at the 
top front, and two in 
the rear, top and bottom. 
Finally, nail the four 
16 cm pieces (E) into 
position at the two back 
corners of the cage, one 
on each side of each 
upright . 



-187- 



(2) Tray 



24 



2 r*- 



H 






26 



Cut the sheet metal (F) to the 
given pattern. Bend up the 
sides along the dotted lines 
and bend down the flange at the 
front. Seal the corners with a 
waterproof sealant (e.g., pitch) 
The tray should slide easily 
into the cage and protrude from 
the front for 1.0 cm. 



Seal 




3) Door 




0.5 



Make the door from the four 
pieces of wood (G,H) by using 
half-lap joints. This simply 
involves cutting away half the 
piece of wood where the two 
pieces to be joined overlap. 



Mesh (I) 




Nail the wire mesh (I) to the 
back of the door making certain 
that it covers all wood portions 
completely to discourage 
gnawing animals like mice. If 
possible, use mesh with openings 
about 0.5 cm sguare rather than 
regular wire screening that is 
used in house screens. 



Mesh (I) 



Frame" 



i J- 



t 



(4) Wire Mesh 



T 

IB 

1 



26 



Door 



■t 



\ 



iBent 

•Nail (J) 



Tray (F) "Straight 

Nail (J) 
Front View 



•K" 



£>' 



Mesh (K) 



To form a holder for the door, 
first hammer two nails (J) 
into the front of the frame at 
a level even with the top of 
the tray. Drive, them in 
1 - 1 . 5 cm but do not bend them. 
Set the door on these two nails 
and be certain that it com- 
pletely covers the opening. 
Nail two nails (J) on each side 
of the door as close to it as 
possible and bend them over so 
that they hold the door in an 
upright position. The door 
should slide easily in and out 
of position. Remove the door 
while completing the cage con- 
struction . 

Fold the long piece of wire 
mesh (K) (again, use the . 5 cm 
sguare size if possible) to the 
shape shown. Then, nail the 
20 cm piece (M) into position 
to seal off the rear of the 
cage. Next, nail the folded 
piece (K) into position so that 



-189- 



m 



y Side and 
A Bottom Mesh (K) 



r 



Top Mesh (L) 




Tray (F) 



/z 




m 



Back 
Mesh (M) 



V'Ss.sSSS Z2 7ZZZ Z 2 ZZ ' ■> ZZZZZZZZZZZZ2ZZZL 

Cross Section View 



the sidepieces cover the sides 
of the cage completely. The 
bottom of the screen will be 
2 cm above the floor of the 
cage (actually, it will be 
level with the top edge of the 
tray) . Properly done, wire 
mesh should cover the inside 
of the cage so that no wood is 
exposed. Finally, nail the 
remaining piece of mesh (L) 
onto the top of the cage. 



(5) Water Bottle 




Fire Polish 



Vial (N) 




Stopper (0) 



Tube (P) 



Begin the water bottle by 
bending the glass tube (P) in 
the middle to about a 45° angle. 
Fire polish one end until the 
opening constricts very slightly. 
Insert the other end of the 
tube into the stopper (0) . 
Fill the vial (N) with water 
and seal the opening with the 
stopper. 

When the vial is upside down 
water should flow down into 
the tube and stop at the end. 
One may have to tap the tube 
lightly with a finger to break 
up air bubbles in the tube. 



-190- 




Hanger (Q) 
(Vial not shown 
for clarity) 



To make a hanger for the water 
bottle, use the piece of stiff 
wire (Q) . Twist the wire 
around the stopper, then bend 
the loose ends as shown. The 
water bottle can then be hung 
on the outside of the cage with 
the glass tube sticking through 
the wire mesh. Animals such 
as mice and gerbils soon learn 
to lick the end of the tube to 
obtain water . 



c. Notes 



(i) This cage is intended for long-term housing of small mammals. Cover the 
screen floor with shredded newspaper or sawdust. Wastes fall through the screen 
floor onto the tray so they can easily be removed. Food can be simply put into 
a jar lid or shallow tin can. 

(ii) The basic design of this cage can be retained and the dimensions altered 
to accomnodate other animals, especially birds. Remember to provide the basic 
requirements for each different type of animal (e.g., perches for birds) . 

(iii) If space is limited, these cages will stack one upon the other. However, 
the door must be hinged to swing open if it is undesirable to unstack them each 
time a lower cage is to be opened. 



CI . Vivarium 



-191- 



C. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED CAGES 



(3) Heat Source 




(4) Screen 



(5) Glass (Not shown 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Frame 



(2) Dividers 



Qu 



Items Required 
Plywood (A) 
Plywood (8) 
Wood (C) 
Wood (D) 
Wood (E) 
Wood (F) 

Sheet Metal (G) 
Sheet Metal (H) 

Wood Dowels (I) 
Cloth (Cotton) (J) 



Dimensions 

60 cm x 45 cm x 1.0 cm 
43.5 cmx 20 cmx 1.0 cm 
2 cm x 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm 
38.5 cmx 2.5 cmx 2.5 cm 
56.5 cmx 2.5 cmx 2.5 cm 

4 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm 

5 cm x 21 cm x 0.05 cm 
4 cm x 5 cm x 0.05 cm 

42 cm long, 0.7 5 cm 
diameter 

38 cm x 25 cm 



-192- 



(3) Heat Source 



(4) Screen 



Glass 



: 


Plywood (K) 


i 


Hardboard (L) 


i 


Plywood (M) 


2 


Plywood (N) 


2 


Wood (0) 


1 


Wood (P) 


2 


Sheet Metal (Q) 


1 


Plywood (R) 


: 


Light Bulb Socket 


i 


Light Bulb (T) 


: 


Electric Cord (U) 




Plug (V) 


4 


Bolts (W) 


4 


Wing Nuts (X) 


1 


Wire Screen (Y) 


2 


Wood (Z) 


2 


Wood (AA) 


2 


Wood (BB) 


2 


Wood (CC) 


1 


Window Glass (DD) 


2 


Window Glass (EE) 


2 


Sheet Metal (FF) 



4 4 cm x 1 6 cm x 1 . cm 
16.5 cmx 45 cmx 0.3 cm 
2 cm x 4 4 cm x 0.5 cm 
16.5 cm x 21 cmx 0.5 cm 
2 cm x 4 cm x 1 . cm 
36 cm x 4 cm x 1.0 cm 

14 cm x 5 cm x 0.05 cm 
4 4 cm x 15 cm x . 5 cm 

(S) Varies 
Varies 
150 cm long 
Varies 

8 cm long, . 5 cm 
diameter 

. 5 . cm inside diameter 

2 cm x 45 cm 

21 cm x 3 cm x 0.5 cm 

3 9 cm x 3 cm x 0.5 cm 
45 cm x 3 cm x 0.5 cm 

15 cm x 3 cm x 0.5 cm 

59 cmx44 cm x 0.25 cm 
19 cm x 59 cmx 0.25 cm 
12 cm x 4 cm x 0.05 cm 



b. Construction 



(1) Frame 



End (D) 




Notches must be made in the two 
sidepieces (E) into which the 
dividers will be fit, Also, 
holes need to be drilled 
through the end (D) and the 
two uprights (C) through which 
the bolts hold the frame, screen, 
and heat source are put. 
However, these holes should 
be drilled when the three 
components (frame, screen, heat 
source) are held together in 
place with clamps in order to 
insure that the holes will be 
aligned. 



-193- 



Corner 
Blocks (F) 



ase (A) 



Endpiece (B) 




Corner Blocks (F) 




Sheet Metal 
Glass Guides (G,H) 



Glass 



Glass 



Nail, screw and/or glue the 
endpiece (B) to the base (A) , 
flush to one edge and 0.75 cm 
from the other two edges. Nail 
two uprights (C) to the base, 
flush to the opposite end and 
each 0.75 cm from the outside 
edge. Nail the sidepieces (E) 
into position between the 
uprights and endpiece, and also 
nail the end (D) between the 
two uprights. 



Two sguare pieces of wood (F) 
cut into triangular shapes are 
used as corner blocks to provide 
additional support and strength. 



To provide guides for the glass, 
six rectangular pieces of 
aluminum sheeting (G, H) (0.05cm 
thick) are required. They are 
folded to the shape shown. 
Four (G) are nailed to the 
upright and endpiece. The 
remaining two (H) are nailed 
to the end and endpiece. These 
guides should be fastened in 
such a way as to provide 
approximately a 0.75 cm gap 
between wood and metal so that 
the glass can slide easily in 
and out . 



-194- 



(2) Dividers 




Dowel (I) 



Cloth (0) 



(3) Heat Source 



Back (M) 



End ( 




The dividers are simply made 
with wooden dowels (I) . A 
piece of cotton cloth (J) is 
sewn around the dowel, and hangs 
down to within 1 or 2 cm of the 
base. The dividers (two are 
needed) are fit into the notches 
in the frame sides. 



Use the piece of plywood (K) 
as the base of the heat source. 
Fasten the two plywood pieces 
(N) to the ends of the base and 
the third plywood piece (M) to 
the back. Nail two of the wood 
strips (0) to the base and 
ends, and nail the remaining 
strip (P) between these two 
ip (P) pieces (0) . 



Nail the piece of hardboard (L) 
to the top of the frame to 
enclose it. This hardboard 
should be the perforated type 
with . 5 cm holes spaced every 
2.5 - 3.0 cm. If such hard- 
board is not available, it can 
easily be made by making holes 
in regular board. Holes must 
also be made in the heat source, 
but again, these should be 



-195- 



piug 




(4) Screen 



drilled when the frame, screen, 
and heat source can all be held 
together with clamps to insure 
alignment of the holes. Drill 
another hole in the back to 
allow the wire to the light 
bulb socket to run through. 

Two guides (Q) are needed for 
the ventilation board, and are 
nailed to the sides of the heat 
source. Make these like the 
glass guides described in 
construction step (1) . The 
ventilation board (R) is made 
of thin plywood slightly 
shorter in length and width 
than the top of the heat source. 
It should slide easily in and 
out between the guides (Q) . 

Finally, fasten a light bulb 
socket (S) in the middle of 
the heat source. Wire a plug (V) 
to the socket with the wire (U) 
and lead it out of the box 
through a small hole drilled in 
the back. Screw a bulb (T) in 
place. 

The screen is made with eight 
pieces of wood. Form two 
rectangular frames. Make one 
by nailing two pieces of wood 
(CC) between the two pieces (BB) , 
and the second frame by nailing 
two pieces (AA) between the 
shorter pieces (Z) . The 
aluminum screening (Y) (wire 
mesh) is fastened between the 
two frames with nails, and the 
frames are nailed and glued 



-196- 




(5) Glass 




together. The four holes for 
the connecting bolts (W) will be 
made when the three components 
(frame, screen, heat source) are 
clamped together, and the holes 
are drilled through all three 
parts at once . 

The heat source, screen, and 
frame are connected together 
with the bolts (W) and wing 
nuts (X) . 

Three glass plates are not 
shown in the main illustration 
in order to preserve clarity. 
However, the two side plates (EE) 
are made from standard window 
glass (0.2 cm in thickness) . 
They fit between the glass guides 
on the frame sides. The top 
plate is also window glass (DD) . 
The top plate of glass fits 
between the two glass guides on 
the top of the frame. Any of the 
three pieces of glass should 
slide easily in and out of place 
when the other two are in position. 
Additionally, air gaps should be 
kept to a minimum. 

Finally, two pieces of aluminum 
sheeting (FF) can be folded to 
the shape shown and slipped over 
the top edge of one of the side 
pieces of glass (EE) . These 
pieces of aluminum then act as 
stops to keep the top glass 
plate (DD) from sliding out. 



-197- 



c. Notes 




Heat Source 



Chamber A 



Chamber B 



Chamber C 



(i) The vivarium is a cage in which the cloth dividers are used to loosely 
partition the interior into three chambers. The heat source employs light bulbs 
as the heating elements. A desirable result would be to maintain an even tempera- 
ture gradient (i.e., 35°, 30°j 25° C) in the three chambers so that animals placed 
in the vivarium could seek their own optimal temperature level. For instance, the 
temperatures given above would imply that it was thought that the optimal environ- 
mental temperature for a given animal was 30°C (the temperature maintained in 
Chamber B) . In this case, even if the vivarium were placed out-of-doors and 
subjected to temperature fluctuations of ± 5°C, one of the chambers would still 
maintain the 30°C level (e.g., temperatures in the vivarium might be depressed to 
30°, 25°, 20° or elevated to 40°, 35°, 30° C) . In order to insure that the desired 
temperature is maintained in at least one chamber, it may be necessary to increase 
the number of chambers from the three used in this experimentation, In fact, all 
the conclusions given here must be qualified by the limited nature of the experi- 
mentation. 



(ii) Following construction of a vivarium, experimentation was carried out to 
determine which variables affect the establishment of the temperature gradient, 
and how these variables affect this gradient, both separately and in combination. 
Variables found to influence the temperature gradient included bulb size (wattage) , 
divider material, height of the dividers above the floor of the cage, use of a 
reflector in the heat source and ambient (room) temperature. 

(iii) Generally, increasing the bulb size (wattage) caused a marked increase in 
temperature in Chamber A, less so in Chamber B, and little or no change in 
temperature in Chamber C. The result was that the temperature gradient, rather 



-198- 



than increasing in equal increments (i . e . , 34° , 30° , 26° C) , tended to increase in 
unequal increments (e.g., 36°, 26° 9 23° C) . 

(iv) The material from which the dividers are made was found to have little 
effect on the temperature gradient maintained in the cage, but the amount of space 
left between the bottom of the dividers and the vivarium floor did have a compact- 
ing effect on the temperatures, i.e., bringing those in Chambers A and C closer to 
that in B. 

(v) As might be expected, using a reflector in the heat source caused an overall 
rise in temperature in the vivarium. The last variable to be investigated, 
ambient (surrounding) temperature, was seen to have a profound influence on the 
internal temperatures in the vivarium, and is probably the most important variable 
to be considered. No doubt, the vivarium walls will have to be altered using 
better insulating materials (e.g., wood rather than glass) in order to reduce the 
influence of the ambient temperature, 

(vi) Some other variables which were not investigated also may have an effect on 
temperature control . Among these is the material in the screen between the heat 
source and cage itself. It was aluminum screening for all the experimentation 
described here, but may well have different effects if it were made from steel rods 
or other materials. The type and amount of ventilation will also be an influence. 

The dimensions of the vivarium are also important since a larger cage will 
obviously be harder to heat and maintain. The number and size of the chambers are 
variables to be reckoned with. 

Finally, the most important factor will be the animals and their require- 
ments. Testing must be done to see if a reasonable range of temperatures can be 
maintained for a variety of animals (e.g., baby chickens, mice, lizards, etc.) . If 
experiments are to be run involving the determination of optimal temperature 
requirements for a particular animal, the range of temperatures provided must be 
narrow enough so that there will be some assurance that the animal has indeed 
chosen its favorite temperature, and not simply chosen the lesser of three evils. 
For example, if the optimal temperature for a certain lizard is thought to be 
30°C, then the range should be 30°C plus or minus 2° or 3°C rather than plus or 
minus 6° or 8°. 

(vii) Experimentation was also done with the cloth partitions removed, making 
the vivarium a single chamber. Three conditions were checked using three different 
bulb wattages (60, 100, 175) . In the first condition, the vivarium was used as 
described above, only without the cloth partitions . In the second condition, one 
half of the glass top was removed and replaced by wood, and in the third case, the 



-199- 



entire top was wood, leaving only the front piece of glass. In all three instances, 
the aluminum foil reflector was used, and the ventilated top of the heat source 
was fully closed. The results of this experimentation are tabulated below. 

Table I 







Vivarium 


Room 


Condition 


Wattage 


Temperature 

(°c) 


Temperature 

(°C) 










Top Completely 


60 


26 


22 


Glass 


100 


28 


22 




175 


33 


22.5 


Top One Half 
Glass, One Half 
Wood 


60 
100 


26 
29 


22 
22.5 




175 


38 


24 


Top Completely 
Wood 


60 
100 


26 
30 


22 
22 




175 


37 


23 



As the data show, there appears to be little significant difference in the 
various temperatures, although the additional wood does help hold the heat slightly 
better than the all glass top. 

The vivarium will serve adeguately as a controlled temperature environment 
as long as the ambient (room) temperature is kept relatively constant. 

(viii) If the vivarium is to be used in a room where the outside temperature varies 
greatly, it is desirable to control its internal temperature more accurately. 
Therefore, use the thermostat, itemVI/C3. wire the heat source to the thermostat 
which should be mounted in the back panel of the vivarium if no wood is used in the 
top. Keep the thermostat as far from the heat source as possible. In addition, 
a screen or other protective device must be placed over the thermostat to prevent 
the animals (and students) from touching the exposed portions of the thermostat 
which carry current of 110 volts. 



C2 . Egg Incubator 



-200- 



(2) Glass Front 



(1) Box 




3 Heat Reflector 



(4) T'ray 



5) Heat Source* 



a. Materials Reguired 






Components 


Qu 


Items Reguired 


(1) Box 


2 


Wood (A) 




2 


Plywood (B) 




: 


Plywood (C) 




i 


Wood (D) 




2 

1 


Wood (E) 
Wood (F) 




: 


Plywood (G) 


(2) Glass Front 


2 


Glass (H) 




2 


Wood Strips (I) 




2 


Wood Strips (J) 




2 


Wood (K) 




2 


Wood (L) 




4 


Screws (M) 




2 


Rubber Bands (N) 



Dimensions 

23 cm x 2 cm x 1.5 cm 

20 cm x 3 6 cm x 1 . cm 

25 cm x 3 6 cm x 1 . cm 

23 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

14 cm x 1. cm x 1.0 cm 
23 cm x 1 . cm x 1 . cm 
19 cm x 2 5 cm x 1 . cm 

18 cm x 1 cm x . 3 cm 

10 cm x . 5 cm x . 5 cm 

17 cm x . 5 cm x . 5 cm 

23 cm x 2 . 5 cm x 2 cm 

15 cm x 2 . 5 cm x 2 cm 
Approximately 2 cm long 



-201- 



(3) Heat Reflector" 



(4) Tray 



(5) Heat Source 



Plywood (0) 
Aluminum Foil (P) 

Wire Mesh (Q) 
Bolts (R) 

Nuts (S) 

Bulb Sockets (T) 
Bolts (U) 

Nuts (V) 

Electrical Wire 
Plug (X) 
Bulbs (Y) 



23 cm x 15 cm x 1.0 cm 
2 8 cm x 2 cm 

2 6 cm x 2 cm 

Approximately 2 cm 
long 

To fit bolts 

10 cm diameter (base) 

Approximately 3 cm 
long 

To fit bolts 

Approximately 100 cm 



b. Construction 
(1) Box 




Top Piece (A) 



ack Piece (C) 



Sidepieces 
(B) 



Bottom 

Piece (A) 



Nail or screw the two sidepieces 
of plywood (B) to the two pieces 
of wood (A) serving as the top 
and bottom of the box. Nail or 
screw the back (C) into position. 
Small ventilation holes (0.4 cm 
diameter) should be drilled 
along the tops of the sidepieces 
(B). 



-202- 




Wood (E) 



Cross- 
piece (D) 



Make certain the crosspiece 
(D) fits very tightly, and nail 
or screw it into place. Nail or 
glue the wood strip (F) to the 
top (A) , 2 cm from the front 
edge of the top. Likewise, 
nail or glue the other two wood 
strips (E) to the sidepieces (B) , 
2 cm from their front edges 
between the top (A) and cross- 
piece (D) . 




Wood (F) 



Wood (E) 



Wood (D) 




The front panel (G) is screwed 
into place so it may be easily 
removed to permit completing 
the construction of the incuba- 
tor, and to permit changing the 
light bulb in the heat source. 



Front 
Panel (G) 



-203- 



(2) Glass Front 




Half-lap Joint 



Wood (K) 




Make the frame for the glass 
front with half-lap joints (see 
drawing) . Use this type of 
joint to connect the two short 
pieces of wood (L) to the two 
longer ones (K) . Glue the two 
wood strips (I) down the center 
of the inner surface of the 
short wood pieces (L) , and 
similarly, glue the longer 
strips (J) down the center of 
the inner surface of the long 
pieces (K) . These thin strips 
serve to separate the two 
pieces of glass (H) which can 
now be glued into place with 
epoxy resin cement. 



Wood (L) 




Wood (i) 



Wood (J) 



Front View 



Wood (L) Glass (H) Wood (L) 

I K 1 



I 




Wood (I) Wood < K > Wood (D 



Cross Section 



-204- 



(3) Heat Reflector 



Screw 



Rubber 
Band (N) 



Plywood (0) 



Aluminum 
Foil (P) 




The glass front should fit 
tightly in the recess in the 
front of the box. To hold it in 
place, fasten one screw (M) on 
each side of the frame of the 
glass front and each side of the 
box adjacent to the glass front. 
Rubber bands (N) stretched 
tightly between adjacent screws 
should hold the glass front 
firmly in position. 

Cover the lower surface of the 
plywood (0) with the aluminum 
foil (P) and nail the heat 
reflector into position as 
shown. Be sure the rear edge 
is touching the back (C) of the 
box. 



Front View 



(4) Tray 



Wire Mes 



h. (Q) 




Tray (Diagram) 



1.5 



Use the wide (0.5 cm square) 
wire mesh (Q) for the tray and 
fold it so there is a 1.5 cm 
edge all around. Fasten it to 
the inside of the box by pinning 
the side edges of the mesh to 
the sides of the box with the 
nuts (S) and bolts (R) . 
Obviously holes will have to be 
drilled through the sides of 
the box to permit passage of 
the bolts. The rear edge of 
the tray should touch the back 
(C) of the box. 



-205- 



Nut (S) 



Bolt (R) 




Front View 



(5) Heat Source 



Tray 



Heat 
Reflector 



Bulb (Y) 




Socket (T) 



Bolt (U) 



To Plug 



c. Notes 



Front View 



Drill four holes in the back of 
the box near the bottom through 
which the bolts (U) will be 
passed to hold the bulb sockets 

(T) in position. Wire the 
sockets together in parallel 
with short lengths of wire (W) 
and pass the remaining wire out 
of the box through a fifth hole 
drilled in the back. Wire the 
plug (X) in place, and tighten 
the nuts (V) onto the bolts (U) 
now that the bulb sockets are 
wired. Finally, place the 
desired number and power 

(wattage) of light bulbs (Y) 
in the sockets. 



(i) Use the egg incubator in the study of the embryology of chicken or other 

eggs. The double glass front permits visual observation of the eggs on the tray 
without undue heat loss. 

(ii) The temperature in the incubator will remain constant using varying 



-206- 



wattages of light bulbs as long as the room temperature is relatively constant 
(see the table) . 



Watts 


Incubator 


Room 




Temperature 

(°c) 


Temperature 

(°c) 


40 


37.5 


23.0 


60 


46.0 


25.5 


80 


51.0 


23.0 


120 


67.0 


23.0 



(iii) The thermostat (VI/C3) should be used with the incubator to insure that the 
internal temperature maintains itself at the correct level. Mount it in the top 
of the incubator, protected by a wire screen which will prevent hatchlings (and 
people) from touching the live wires. In fact, if the incubator is definitely to 
be used with the thermostat, increase the height of the top above the egg tray to 
insure that the hatchlings cannot touch the thermostat. 



-207- 



C3 . Thermostat 



(1) Platform 



(3) Electrical 
System 



(2) Bimetallic 
Strips 




a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Platform 



(2) Bimetallic Strips 2 

1 
2 



q u Items Required 

1 Wood (A) 

1 Wood (B) 

1 Wood Strip (C) 

1 Wood Strip (D) 

Bimetallic (Brass/Steel) 
Strips ( E ) 

Platinum Wire (F) 

Bolts (G) 



(3) Electrical 
System 



2 Nuts (H) 

4 Washers (I) 

1 Bolt (J) 

1 Nut (K) 

1 Washer (L) 

1 Plastic Tube (M) 

Insulation Tape (N) 

1 Capacitor (0) 

1 Roll of Copper Wire (P) 



Dimensions 

10 cm x 10 cm x 1.0 cm 
6 cm x 6 cm x 1.0 cm 
3 cm x 2 cm x . 5 cm 
2 cm x 1.5 cm x 0.5 cm 

Approximately 3 . 5 cm 
x 0.5 cm 

#20, 3 cm lonq 

. 2 cm diameter, 4 cm 
long 

0.2 cm internal 
diameter 



. 3 cm diameter, 5 cm 
long 

0.3 cm internal 
diameter 

1 cm external diameter 

0.3 cm internal 
diameter, . 5 cm long 



0.01 microfarads 
#20 



-208- 



b. Construction 
(1) Platform 



Bolt (Q) 



Nuts (R) 



1 Double Electrical Cord (S) 
1 Plug (T) 




0.3 cm diameter, 
2.5 cm long 

0.3 cm internal 
diameter 

300 cm long 

110 volt 



Glue the smaller wood piece (B) 
to the middle of the larger one 
(A) . Next, glue wood strip (D) 
at one end of the other wood 
strip (E) , and glue this 
resulting section near one edge 
of wood sguare (B) . 



(2) Bimetallic Strips 



Brass 



Steeil 



Side View 



y> Holes 



Wire (F) 



\ 



Solder 




Bimetallic 
Strips (E) 



Drill a small hole (0.2 cm 
diameter or smaller) in one end 
of each bimetallic strip (E) . 
Purchase these strips locally 
from a radio or electrical shop. 
Place a short piece of the 
platinum wire (F) through this 
hole and with a hammer, flatten 
each protruding piece of the wire 
flat as if the wire were a tiny 
rivet. Place a small drop of 
solder on the flattened portion 
of wire on the steel side of the 
bimetallic strip to insure good 
electrical contact. Alterna- 
tively, drill two very small 
holes in the end of each bi- 
metallic strip, those in one 
strip in line with the short 
side of the strip and those in 
the other in line with the long 
side of the strip (see illustra- 



-209- 



Wire (F) 
i 



\1 



Solder 



Wire 



(F)< 



d 



Brass 

_L_ 



t 

Steel 
Side View 



13 



>Bime 
Stri 



Bimetallic 
ps (E) 



Top Views 



Nut (H) 

Washer r ^ * 
(I) ~ 



Bolt (G) 



-Bolts (G) 




Washer (.1) 



.Side viev 



tion). Place one end of a short 
piece of the platinum wire 
through each hole from the brass 
side of the strip and solder 
these ends to the steel side of 
the strip to provide good 
electrical contact . Flatten each 
wire slightly with a hammer to 
help make a greater surface area 
for electrical contact. Regard- 
less of the manner in which the 
platinum is fixed to the end of 
the bimetallic strips, drill a 
small (0.2 cm diameter) hole in 
the opposite end of each strip. 
Also, make certain no solder is 
on the brass side of the bi- 
metallic strips since this is 
likely to contaminate the surface 
of the platinum contacts. 

Next, drill two holes (0.2 cm 
diameter) through the platform, 
one through all four pieces of 
wood and the other through all 
but piece (D) . Attach the 
bimetallic strips to the platform 
with the two bolts (G) , two 
nuts (H) , and four washers (I) 
as shown. The platinum contact 
point of the lower strip should 
face up while that of the upper 
strip should face down. 



-210- 



Position of 
Adjustment 
Boit (J) 




Pivot the free ends of the 
bimetallic strips toward one 
another so that the platinum 
contact points will touch one 
another when the strips are 
pressed together. 



Top View 



Side View 




Nut (K) 



Washer (L) 



Drill a hole (0.3 cm diameter) 
through the platform directly 
below the middle of the lower 
bimetallic strip. Inset the 
nut (K) into the outside wood 
piece (A) directly over the 
hole. Thread the bolt (J) 
through the nut and hole. Place 
the piece of plastic tubing (M) 
on the end of the bolt (J) to 
prevent electrical contact 
between the bolt and metallic 
strip. Solder the washer (L) to 
the notch in the bolthead and 
cover both thoroughly with 
insulation tape (N) . Make 
absolutely certain the bolt is 
completely insulated from the 
bimetallic strip as it will 
carry 110 volt current. 



-211- 



(3) Electrical System 



Capacitor (0) 




Purchase the capacitor (0) 
locally, and connect it across 
the bimetallic strips. Cut a 
hole (6 cm x 6 cm) into the top 
of the container which is to 
be heated. The thermostat plat- 
form should fit firmly in the 
hole with the bimetallic strips 
beneath the platform. 



Top View 



Capacitor (0) 



Bimetallic 
Strips (E) 



T 



Terminal 



/ 



-oj - 

t 

Power 
Source 

Wiring Diagram 



C. Notes 



V J 



Light 
Bulbs 



Use one piece of copper wire 
(P) to connect one of the 
bimetallic strips to one contact 
of the bulb socket of the 
heating source, and use another 
piece of the wire to connect the 
other bimetallic strip to a 
terminal [made from bolt (Q) and 
two nuts (R) ] which must be put 
in the back of the cage or 
incubator which is to be heated. 
Then, connect the double 
electrical cord (S), with the 
plug (T) attached, to the ter- 
minal and the remaining contact 
on the bulb socket. The wiring 
circuit as shown in the diagram 
is now complete, and the 
thermostat is ready for use. 



(i) It should be noted that due to lack of time the thermostat described here 
was tested out with the Microorganism Incubator (VII/A4) only. Care should there- 
fore be taken to test the thermostat carefully when used in conjunction with either 
the Egg Incubator (VI/C2) or Vivarium (VI/C1) . 



-212- 



(ii) It was noted that using the thermostat the temperature of the Micro- 
organism Incubator took about 25 minutes to stabilize. 



Time 
Minutes 


Cage Temperature 

°c 





40.5 


5 


39.0 


10 


38.5 


15 


38.0 


20 


38.0 


25 


37.0 


30 


37.0 stabilized 



(iii) Do not permit direct radiation from the heat source to fall on the thermo- 
stat, otherwise the thermostat will switch itself off before the air temperature 

has risen to the desired level. 



Top View 




Heat 
Source 



Thermostat 



Where there is a possibility 
of direct radiation falling on 
the bimetallic strips of the 
thermostat make an appropriate 
shield to stop the radiation 
without restricting the circu- 
lation of air around the bimetal- 
lic strips. 



-213- 



VII. MICROBIAL GROWTH APPARATUS 

A. BASIC APPARATUS 

Included here are improvised versions of the equipment necessary to perform 
elementary investigations in microbiology. Information on culturing microorganisms 
should be obtained from standard texts on the subject. 



-214- 



A. BASIC APPARATUS 



Al. Culture Flask 




I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 

J- 



(1) Bottle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Bottle 



b. Construction 



Qll I tems Required 

1 Medicine Bottle (A) 



1 



Cotton Plug (B) 



(1) Bottle 




Cotton 
■Plug (B) 



Dimensions 

About 100 ml or 
larger 



Sterilize the bottle (A) and 
fill it 1/6 full of either 
liquid or gelatin culture 
medium. Stopper it with the 
cotton plug (B) . f gelatin 
medium is used, lay the bottle 
on its side and allow the 
medium to set. Store the 
flask with the medium on the 
upper side of the flask so that 
no moisture film will form on 
the medium. 

c. Notes 

(i) Consult a standard microbiological text or source book for deta il in working 
with bacteria and other microorganisms. 

(ii) Use glass medicine bottles with flat sides if these are available. 

(iii) Petri dishes are invaluable in working with microbes. SeeCHEM/V/A6 for 
instructions in making petri dishes. 



Medium 



A2 . Sterilizer 



-215- 





(1) Top 



(2) Can 



(3) Rack (Not visible) 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Top 



(2) Can 



(3) Rack 



b. Construction 



(1) Top 



Qll Items Required 

1 Sheet Metal (A) 

1 Hinge (B) 

1 Tin Can (C) 

4 Screws (D) 

1 Sheet Metal (E) 



Hinge (B) ,' 




Original — *. \ 

Outline of 

Sheet Metal (A) -^ 



Tab 



Dimensions 

17 cm diameter, 
0.075 cm thick 

3 CITl'X 2 cm 

15 cm diameter, 

18 cm high 

1.5 cm long 

14.5 cm diameter, 
0.075 cm thick 



Cut the top from a circular 
piece of sheet metal (A) . 
Leave three tabs to be bent 
down at right (90°) angles. The 
tabs are 1.0 cm long. Screw 
the small hinge (B) to the top 
directly opposite the middle 
tab. 



-216- 



(2) Can 



Tab 



Hinge (B) 




R'idge 



Side View 



(3) Rack 




Remove one end from the tin can 
(C) . Attach the top to the can 
by means of the hinge. Most tin 
cans have a ridge around the 
edge so that when the top is 
closed, the three tabs should 
catch on this ridge and hold 
the top down rather firmly. 
Finally, screw the four screws 
(D) through the outside into the 
inside of the can, 9 cm from the 
bottom and spaced about 12 cm 
apart. 

Punch a number of holes into 
the sheet metal disc (E). Set 
this disc inside the can so 
that it is supported by the 
four screws extending into the 
can. 



Hinge (B) 




8 -—Top (A) 



Rack (E) 



Side View 
(Cross-section) 



C. Notes 

(i) To use the sterilizer, simply put 3 - 4 cm of water in the can and place 
the items to be sterilized on the rack. After the water has begun to boil, leave 



■217- 



the items in the steam for about 90 minutes. 

(ii) If the can used is large enough, two or more racks can be made for it to 
allow a larger number of articles to be sterilized at the same time. 

(iii) This sterilizer will kill most, but not all, common bacterial contaminants. 
If pure sterility is desired , an autoclave or ordinary pressure cooker is needed. 
Place the articles on a rack and autoclave or pressure cook them for about 20 
minutes . 

(iv) An alternate rack can be made by fastening a circular piece of wire mesh 
to a frame of stiff wire. 



-21£ 



A3. Inoculating Needles 




(1) Needle 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Needle 



b. Construction 
(1) Needle 



Qll I tems Required 
1 Glass Tube (A) 

1 Nichrome Wire (B) 



/ 



Heat Here 



Glass Tube (A) 






chrome 
Wire (B) 



Side View 



Dimensions 

. 3 cm diameter, 
12 cm long 

10 cm long, #24 
gauge 



Use soft glass tubing (A) with 
a small diameter bore. Insert 
about 2 cm of the wire (B) in 
one end of the tube and heat 
this end in a hot flame until 
the end of the glass constricts 
and holds the wire fast. 



Notes 



(i) The nichrome wire may be left straight or a 0.3 cm loop may be made in the 
end by twisting the wire around a 0.3 cm round object with pliers. 

(ii) Use inoculating needles for transferring small amounts of bacterial cu Itures 
from one medium to another. 



•219- 



A4 . Microorganism Incubator 



(1) Frame and Trays 




(4) Door 



(2) Heat Reflector 



(3) Heat Source 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Frame and Trays 



(2) Heat Reflector 



Qli Items Required 

3 Plywood (A) 

1 Plywood (B) 

1 Plywood (C) 

6 Wood Strips (D) 

3 Perforated 

Hardboard (E) 

1 Plywood (F) 

1 Aluminum Foil (G) 



Dimensions 

35 cm x 32 cm x 1.0 cm 

33 cm x 32 cm x 1.0 cm 

35 cm x 3 6 cm x 1.0 cm 

30 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm 

32.5 cm x 31 cm 
x 0.3 cm 

33 cm x 2 4 cm x 0.5 cm 
37 cm x 2 8 cm 



-220- 



(3) Heat Source 

(4) Door 



Egg Incubator, 
Heat Source (H) 

Plywood (I) 

Hinges (J) 

Screws (K) 

Nails (L) 

Rubber Bands (M) 



b. Construction 

(1) Frame and Trays 





Wood Str 


ips 


(D) 






1.5 


l\ 




"IT 


i / 


l\ 


lr 




6.5 


sS 


n 


1 


1 


\ 


n 




5 




i 


1 


t 


I 


1 


1 






•- 4 y~ 

c-z-~_- 


t 

4.5 








\ 


\ Position of 




18. 




Heat Reflector 










3z 




< 



VI/C2, Component (5) 

35 cm x 3 6 cm x 1.0 cm 
Approximately 4 cm long 

. 7 cm long 

1 cm long 



Nail three of the wood strips (D) 
to each of two of the pieces of 
plywood (A) as illustrated to 
make the two side pieces of the 
frame. Nail the bottom edges of 
the completed side pieces to 
the wood (B) used as the base. 
Nail the back piece (C) into 
position as well as the top piece 
(A) . When the frame is finished, 
the pieces of perforated card- 
board (E) which serve as the 
trays should slide easily into 
the frame on the wood strips (D). 



Plywood (A) 



-221- 



TOP (A) 



I 1 


u 




Strips (D) <^ 




f 


V L 


J 


Hardboard (E) 


L 

- Sides (A) ' 




j 


i 


■ 










I 



Back (C) 



Base (B) 



Frame and Trays 
(Front view) 



(2) Heat Reflector 



Cover one side of the plywood (F) 
with aluminum foil (G) to make the 
heat reflector. Nail the reflec- 
tor into place 13 cm above the 
base (B) of the frame with a 
4 cm gap between the rear edge of 
the reflector and the back (C) of 
the frame. 



(3) Heat Source 



Front View 



-222- 



Use two light bulbs as the heat 
source (H) exactly as described 
for item VI/C2, Component (5) . 



T 



X 



T 



J 



Heat Reflector 




To Plug 



Heat Source 
(Bulbs and 
Sockets) 



(4) Door 



Door (i) 




Nail (L) 



Rubber Band (M) 



Fasten one edge of the plywood 
(I) to the side of the frame with 
the hinges (J) and screws (K) 
Hinges (J) making certain the door shuts as 
closely to the frame as possible. 
Felt strips may be used as 
insulation between the door and 

frame if necessary, both to 

conserve heat loss and prevent 
the introduction of airborne 
contaminants. The door may be 
held closed by using rubber 
bands (M) which are stretched 



-223- 



between adjacent pairs of 
nails (M) in the frame and 
door. 



C. Notes 



(i) Use the microorganism incubator to provide a proper environment for 
growing bacteria, mold, and other cultures. The dimensions of the incubator 
as given are to enable each tray to hold nine (three rows of three) standard 
petri dishes (9 cm diameter) . 

(ii) If the incubator is used in a constant temperature room, the 
temperature in the incubator can be held relatively constant. Using the 
correct combination of bulbs will yeild an internal temperature close to 
that desired. Rather than drilling ventilation holes to cool the 
incubator if it is too hot, it might be better to paint part of the light 
bulbs with black paint to cut down their heat, Ventilation holes would 
allow contaminants into the incubator. The following gives a few 
examples of temperatures which can be maintained in the incubator. 



Wattage 


Incubator 
Temperature 

(°c) 


Room 
Temperature 

(°c) 


40 
60 
80 


35.0 
40.5 
48.0 


23.5 
22.0 
23.5 



(iii) The thermostat (VI/C3) should be used with the incubator to insure 
that the internal temperature maintains itself at the correct level. Mount 
it in the top of the incubator, protected by a wire screen which will 
prevent persons from touching the live wires, In fact, if the incubator is 
definitely to be used with the thermostat, increase the height of the top 
above the uppermost tray in order to insure that people placing cultures 
in the incubator have less chance of touching the thermostat, 



-224- 



A5 . Transfer Pipette 




(1) Pipette 



a. Materials Required 
Components QU 

(1) Pipette 1 

b. Construction 



(1) Pipette 



n 



db 



Items Required 
Glass Tube (A) 



Pipette 



.Rubber 
Tube 

Syringe 



<y> 



Dimensions 

35 cm long, 0.4 cm 
inside diameter 



Hold one end of the glass tube 
(A) in a flame until the opening 
begins to constrict slightly. 
Remove it from the flame and let 
it cool when the opening is 
about 0.1 cm wide. To calibrate 
the pipette, a 10 cc (ml) 
syringe and short piece of 
rubber or plastic tubing is 
needed. Connect the ends of the 
pipette and syringe with the 
short (4-5 cm) piece of tubing. 
Fill the syringe and pipette 
with 7 or 8 cc of water and 
eliminate air bubbles by gently 
tapping the pipette. Hold the 
pipette vertically (syringe at 
the bottom) and withdraw the 



-225- 



syringe plunger until the water 
empties from the pipette. Note 
the position of the syringe 
plunger on the scale and rein- 
ject water into the pipette 0.5 
ml at a time until a total of 
5 ml is reached. At each 
injection, mark the position of 
the water meniscus with a tri- 
angular file to form a permanent 
scale. 



C. Notes 



(i) This pipette is used in transferring exact amounts of culture broth from 
one container to another. Draw broth into the pipette with mouth suction and 
force the liquid out by gently blowing through the tube. 

(ii) If desired, numbers may be written by the filed marks to indicate the Capa- 
city at that point. These numbers will last longest if they are drawn with waxed 
crayons or other types of pencils designed for writing on glass. 



A6. Transfer Chamber * 



-226- 



(2) Glass 




(1) Body 



a. Materials 


Required 








Components 




fiu 


Items Required 




(1) Body 




2 

1 
2 

1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
1 


Plywood (A) 

Plywood (B) 

Plywood (C) 

Plywood (D) 

Wood (E) 
Wood (F) 
Wood (G) 
Wood (H) 
Wood (I) 

Wood (J) 
Wood (K) 
Wood (L) 
Wood (M) 








1 


Aluminum Sheet 


(N 






1 


Aluminum Sheet 


(0 



Dimensions 

60 cm x 4 cm x 
0.75 cm 

60 cm x 20 cm x 
0.7 5 cm 

40.75 cm x 40 cm x 
0.75 cm 

61.5 cmx 18 cmx 
0.75 cm 

60 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

24 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

36 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

16 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

37.25 cm x 2 cm x 
2 cm 

2 8 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

15 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

6 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

20 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

2 5 cmx 1 1 cmx 

0.05 cm 

20 cm x 14 cm x 
0.05 cm 



*Adapted from Richard E. Barthel emy , et . al., Innovations in Equipment and Techniques 

i, 1964), pp 12-14. 



for the Biology Teaching Laboratory, (Boston: D. C. Heath, 



-227- 



(2) Glass 



b. Construction 



(1) Body 



Window Glass (P) 



r" 30 



10 



A 

^8^ 



9-m 



T 
11 

i_ 



25.5 



28.5 cm x 58.5 cm x 
0.3 cm 



Begin the transfer chamber by 
cutting two holes into one of 
the large pieces of plywood (A) . 
These will serve as ventilating 
holes when the chamber is 
enclosed. 



Plywood (A) 





h — 20 — H- 1 — 12 -4* 8 * 

Plywood (B) 



Cut two holes in the piece of 
plywood (B) to serve as arm- 
holes. The size and distance 
apart of these holes may be 
varied to suit personal prefer- 
ences . 




Detail of Hole 



-22E 




Cut the piece of aluminum 
sheeting (0) (other metal sheet- 
ing may be substituted) to the 
given pattern. Bend up the 
straight sides along the dotted 
lines to form two flanges, each 
1.5 cm wide. 




Poll the sheet metal (0) around 
a round object (e.g., a broom 
handle) until it takes the 
shape of a half cone. 



Half Cone 




Similarly, bend up the two 
11 cm sides of the other piece 
of aluminum (N) , and roll it 
into a half-cylinder shape. 



Pattern 




Half Cylinder 



-229- 




Nail the two aluminum pieces 
into position on the piece of 
plywood (A) in which the holes 
have been cut. Position the 
half cone directly over the 
triangular hole. Position the 
half cylinder so that its edges 
are even with the edges of the 
rectangular hole. 




Nail the two wood strips (F) 
to the bottom edge of the back 
(A) . Nail this in turn to the 
other plywood (A) used as the 
base. 



Plywood (a) 



-230- 





L 


t 

20 

L 


\ 1 


40.75 


\ 1 








h-20 -* 


- 


' 








- 40 A 



Cut the two pieces (C) as shown. 
Use these pieces as endpieces 
for the chamber. 



Endpiece <o 




Nail two strips (G) , two strips 
(I), and one strip (E) to the 
back and base. Then nail the 
two endpieces (C) into position. 
Nail the two strips (K) to the 
front edge of the end, being 
careful to leave a 0.75 cm 
overlap for the frontpiece to 
fit into. 



Frame 



-231- 




1.0 
Overlap 



Ml) 



Next, nail the two strips (l_)» 
and the other strip (E) and 
strips (M) to the back of the 
frontpiece (B) as shown. Pro- 
perly done, this piece can now 
be nailed into the front of the 
chamber. Be sure there is about 
a 1.0 cm overlap of the plywood 
over the 60 cm strip. 



37^-45' 



16- 



1^— 45' 



45 angles 



28 



Cut one end of the wood strips 
(H) and wood strips (J) off at 



Back (A) 



Base (A) 



End (C) 




Nail one each of strips (J) and 
(H) to the endpieces (C) i nSUf- 
ing they fit as shown in the 
drawing. 



Front (B) 



Cutaway View of One End 



-232- 



Top (D) 




Front (B) 



Detail 



To complete the body, nail the 
last piece of plywood (D) to be 
the top, even with the edges of 
the back and sides. 



(2) Glass Simply rest the glass (P) on 

the frame made of the three 
wood strips, one on the front 
(E) and one each (J) on each 
endpiece. There should be no 
gaps between the glass and 
frame . 

C. Notes 

(i) Use the transfer chamber when transferring microbiological cultures from 
one container to another. With it, such techniques can be performed in adraft- 
free environment, thus reducing the possibility of airborne contamination. The 
students' or instructors' arms fit through the armholes in front while the glass 
permits all operations to be viewed easily. 

(ii) The holes in the back serve for ventilation when the chamber is used with 
a bunsen burner. 



-233- 



VII. PHYSIOLOGY MATERIALS 

A. KYM1 GRAPH 

A wide range of,phys iological experiments using larger organisms may be performed 
using the kymograph. 

B. VOLUMETER 



In addition to identifying pressure changes, one may calculate the volume of gas 
exchanged with this equipment. 

C. FERMENTATION TUBES 



Fermentation rate is measured indirectly by the measurement of carbon dioxide. 

D . MANOMETER 

This apparatus enables one to identify changes in pressure within a biological 
system. 

E. CHROMATOGRAPHY APPARATUS 



Chromatography gives students useful insight into the techniques scientists use 
in investigating the biochemical composition of organisms. 



-234- 



A. KYMOGRAPH 



Al . Kymograph 



(1) Support 



(4) Stylus 
Assembly 



(2) Drum 
Assembly 




a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Support 



Qll I tems Required 
3 Wood (A) 

1 Wood (B) 



Dimensions 

25 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

4 5 cm x 3 cm x 1 . cm 



-235- 



(2) Drum Assembly 



1 


Sheet Metal 


(C) 


1 


Tin Can (D) 




2 


Sheet Metal 


(E) 


: 


Stiff Wire 


(F) 


l 


Tin Can (G) 





(3) Drive Assembly 



(4) Stylus Assembly 1 



1 



Sheet Metal Screws (H) 
Glass Tubing (I) 



1 


Wood (J) 


: 


Stiff Wire (K) 


1 


Tin Can (L) 


1 


Sand (M) 


1 


Stiff Wire (N) 



String (0) 
Tin Can (P) 
Pencil Stub (Q) 

Wood (R) 
Stiff Wire (S) 

Nail (T) 

Rubber Band (U) 



2 cm diameter 

4 liter (i.e., 15 cm 
diameter, 17 cm high) 

17 cm x 2 cm x 0.05 cm 

30 cm long, 0.2 cm 
diameter 

5 cm diameter, 6 cm 
high 

1 an long 

. 4 cm diameter, 1.0 
cm long 

3 cm diameter, . 5 cm 
thick 

16 cm long, 0.2 cm 
thick 

1 liter capacity 

600 g 

20 cm long, #20 gauge 
(0.1 cm diameter) 

100 cm 

4 liter capacity 



25 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm 

30 cm long, 0.2 cm 
thick 

1 cm long, 0.2 cm 
thick 

6 cm long 



b. Construction 



(1) Support 



Base (B) 



Hole 



Wood (A) 




Drill a hole through one of the 
pieces of wood (A) directly in 
its center. Drill another hole 
in the base board (B) directly 
below the hole in the upper 
strip of wood. Each hole should 
have a diameter of about 0.3 cm. 
The hole in the base should be 
drilled only halfway through. 
Nail two of the strips (A) to 
the base and nail the crosspiece 
(A) so that the two holes are 



-236- 



(2) Drum Assembly 



Holes 

Ai . . ...,{} _ Screws (H) 



Small Can^ 
(G) 



■ ■ ■ ■ ' ' ' ' ' ' 



'Open 
End 



^ Large 



Can 



Side view 
(Cross-Section) 



^Hole 



5 



^X 



1.0 



15 



Metal Strip (E) 



Solder 
Here 




Metal 
Strip (E) 



'Large 
Can (D) 



aligned. Finally, drill a 0.3 
cm hole through the center of 
the disc of sheet metal (C) and 
nail the sheet metal to the 
base so that the hole in the 
base and the hole in the sheet 
metal are aligned. 

Try to select two tin cans (D,G) 
for the drum assembly which 
have both ends more or less 
intact. Otherwise, adjustments 
must be made to compensate for 
the open ends. At any rate, 
drill holes 0.3 cm in diameter 
in the center of both ends of 
each of the tin cans. Solder 
the two cans together making 
certain the holes in each align. 
If one of the ends of one or 
both cans has been removed, then 
the two cans can be screwed 
together with two sheet metal 
screws (H) . Here, the illustra- 
tions show the situation when 
the small can (G) is intact and 
the large can (D) has one end 
removed. 

To solve the problem of the 
open end of the large can (D) , 
take the two sheet metal strips 
(E) and bend a flap down 1 . cm 
from each end. Drill a 0.3 cm 
hole through each strip in its 
center. Put the two metal 
strips across the top of the can 
so that they are at right angles 
(90°) and their holes are 
aligned. The flaps can be 
adjusted so that the strips are 



-237- 



Wire 
Axel (F) 




Small 
Can (G) 

Glass 
Tube (I) 



Front View 



(3) Drive Assembly 




Pulley (J) 
.3 



Support 



Large 
Can (D) 



Screw (H) 



Metal 
3 Disc (C) 



110-5 



Top View 



Side View 



held tightly in place, or they 
may be soldered to the sides of 
the can. 

Screw a short sheet metal screw 
(H) partway into the small can 
(G) to serve as an attachment 
point for the drive assembly 
string (0) . Then, take the 
stiff wire (F) and insert it 
through the hole in the support, 
through the drum and through 
the glass tubing (I) . Fire 
polish the ends of the glass to 
make them smooth. Finally, 
make sure the end of the wire 
rests in the hole in the base. 
The exposed end of the wire 
axle (F) may be bent for safety. 
The whole drum assembly should 
turn freely now. 

Saw a groove all around the 
circumference of the wood disc 

(J) to make it act as a pulley. 
Drill a hole 0.3 cm in diameter 
through its center. Make the 
pulley mount from the stiff wire 

(K) by bending it to a "U" 
shape. 



Pulley Mount (K) 



7 

6 



Hammer the pulley mount into 
position on the base of the 
support after the pulley (J) 
has been slipped into place on 
the mount. It may be necessary 



-238- 



Drum 




Top View 
Support--!- r*-i 



s 



Drum 



Pulley 



> 



to drill small holes in the 
base for the pulley mount to 
fit into. The pulley and mount 
must be positioned at the front 
of the base directly in line 
with the drum assembly, and 
the pulley must extend beyond 
the edge of the base. The 
pulley mount can be bent over 
to insure that the pulley will 
extend out beyond the edge of 
the base, or alternatively, the 
holes into which the mount is 
inserted can be drilled at an 
angle . 



Side View 




Wire (N) 



Can (L) 



Use the wire (N) to make a 
handle for the 1 liter can (L) . 
Simply drill or punch two holes 
(0.2 cm diameter) near the top 
edge of the can, insert an end 
of the wire through each hole, 
and bend the ends up. Add the 
sand (M) to the can to act as 
ballast. This much weight 
should cause the can to float 
with only about 1 cm sticking 
above water level. 



-239- 



Four Li ter Can (P 




Make the 4 liter tin can (P) 
into a reservoir by removing 
its top. Tape the cut edges to 
prevent students from being cut. 
Drill or punch a small (0.15 cm 
diameter) hole at the bottom of 
the reservoir. Plug this hole 
with a pencil stub (Q) or piece 
of wood. 



1§==71 



S Pulley (j) 



Screw (H) 



Side View 



i_fc 



String (0) 



Tin Can 
Float (L) 



Reservoir 
■*"(P) (Cross- 
section) 

Slug (Q) 



To set up the drive assembly, 
plug the hole in the reservoir 

(P) and fill it with water. 
Attach one end of the string 

(0) to the handle of the can 

(L) and make a small loop in 
the other end of the string. 
Put this loop around the screw 

(H) in the small tin can (G) 
under the drum, and wrap one 
turn of string around the small 
can. Run the string across the 
pulley (J), and float the tin 
can in the reservoir. Properly 
done, the float should lower 
gradually when the reservoir 
plug (Q) is pulled and water 
leaks out. As the float lowers, 
the string pulls on the drum 
causing it to slowly turn. 



-240- 



(4) Stylus Assembly 



Rubber 
Band (U)\ 

Stylus 
Support OU 



Stylus (S) 




Rubber 
Band (U) 



Nail 



Stylus (S) 



Stylus 
Support (R) 



Top View 



k- 5 -hst 



20 



Side View of Stylus (S) 



J 



Top View 



P 




Front View 



Nail or screw the stylus support 
(R) into position about 1 . cm 
from one edge of the base, and 
7 cm from the other edge. Make 
the stylus itself from the stiff 
wire (S) by making a loop in it 
about 5 cm from one end. Bend 
about 1 cm of the other end to 
a 90° angle to form the point. 
This point may be filed sharp 
to make a finer line. Position 
the stylus on the support by 
driving a nail (T) with a 
large head through the loop in 
the stylus. Drive the-nail in 
only enough to allow the stylus 
to pivot freely without twist- 
ing a great deal. The position 
of the stylus point on the 
drum depends upon where on the 
stylus support the stylus is 
nailed, i.e., the higher the 
pivot point on the support, the 
higher on the drum the point 
of the stylus will strike. 
Finally, tie the rubber band (U) 
(break it at one point) to the 
upright support and to the 
middle of the stylus. Adjust 
] this rubber band so that the 
stylus point strikes the drum 
firmly, yet lightly enough not 
to interfere with the rotation 
of the drum. 



-241- 



c. Notes 

(i) To operate the kymograph, the drum must first be covered with a sheet of 
17 cm x 50 cm glossy paper. Remove the drum from the support and attach the 
paper, glossy side out, to the drum with tape at the top and bottom. See that the 
seam where the two edges of the paper overlap is positioned in such a way that the 
stylus point will not catch on it (the seam) as the drum rotates. 

Rotate the drum over a burning kerosene lamp. Hold the drum high enough 
so that the paper will not be scorched. Continue rotating it in the smoke until 
the drum is completely covered with carbon black. It takes about five minutes 
to cover the paper with carbon, reguiring about 10 ml of kerosene. Handle the 
drum carefully since the carbon is easily scratched and rubbed off. 

Replace the drum in the support, holding the stylus out of the way until the 
drum is in position. When the string to the float in the reservior is taut, the 
apparatus is ready to use. 

(ii) One example of the use of the kymograph will be given here. Refer to the 
drawing below: 



Balloon 



Yeast 




Scribed 
Path 



Pat soi! mm lit!:, y s a s t , a « i sugar i i a bottle or last tubs aid seal tie sal 
with an expandable membrane (a piece of balloon rubber works well) . Place the 
solution under the end of the stylus so that the tip of the stylus rests on the 
balloon. Start the drum rotating by pulling the plug from the bottom of the 



-242- 



reservoir. As the yeast respire, carbon dioxide gas is given off, gradually 
causing the balloon to expand, pushing the tip of the stylus up and its point on 
the drum down, leaving a scratch on the smoked paper. The slope of the scratched 
line indicates the rate of respiration of the yeast. 

(iii) Use a clock, watch or other timing device to record time intervals (e.g., 
30 seconds) and record these intervals by making a small mark on the drum each 
interval. These marks must be made as the drum revolves since the drum doesn't 
turn at a constant speed. This is because the velocity of the drum depends on 
the rate of flow of water from the reservoir which is not constant since the water 
pressure lowers as the depth lowers, thus causing the drum to slow down. 

(iv) The stylus assembly may be altered to conform to reguirements of other 
experiments. For example, the following illustration suggests how the stylus 
might be connected for studies of the heartbeat of an anesthetized frog: 



Pulley 



Heart 

(Tie string to 
tip of ventricle 




Here, as the frog's heart contracts and expands, its motion is translated into up 
and down movements of the stylus. Remember, the stylus acts as a lever, and the 
amount of movement of the pointer depends upon the relative lengths of the portions 
of the stylus to either side of the pivot point. 



-243- 



(v) The rate at which the drum revolves depends directly upon how fast the 
float lowers in the reservoir. Therefore, in order to make the float, and thus 
the drum, go faster, it is necessary either to enlarge the reservoir outflow hole 
or make several such holes. Conversely, to make the float and drum slower, a 
reservoir with a large cross-sectional area is needed. In this case, even though 
the float still drops the same distance per one revolution of the drum, more water 
must flow out of the larger can to cause it to drop the same distance as in a 
smaller can. 

(vi) If, for any reason, it is necessary that the drum turn two or more con- 
secutive revolutions, remember that the reservoir must be deep enough to allow the 
float to drop the additional distance required. To be precise, for each revolution 
of the drum, the float must lower a distance equal to the circumference of the 
small can which the drive string is wrapped around. 



-244- 



B. VOLUMETER 



Bl. Volumeter 



(4) Pressure 
Regulator 



(5) Mesh 
Stand 



M 



(3) Indicator and 
Scale 



niijiii i jiiimu i| iui|iui[{ iii[iiuiiiii|iuinuijiui|iiil 




(2) Stopper 




(1) Vessel 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Vessel 



(2) Stopper 



(3) Indicator and 
Scale 



(4) Pressure 
Regulator 



QU Items Required 

1 Wide Mouth Glass Jar (A) 



2-Hole Rubber or Plastic 
Stopper or Screw Cap (B) 

Glass Tubing (C) 



1 Stiff Paper Strip (D) 
1 Glass Tubing (E) 

1 Rubber Tubing (F) 

1 Tapered Wood or Glass 
Rod Plug (G) 



Dimensions 

Size depends on 
organism to be 
studied 

To fit vessel 



30 cm long, 0.75 cm 

outside diameter, 

. 5 cm inside diameter 

2 cm x 2 cm 

4 cm long, 0.75 cm 
outside diameter, 0.5 
cm inside diameter 

4 cm long, 0.75 cm 
inside diameter 

To fit rubber tubing 



-245- 



(5) Mesh Stand 

b. Construction 
(1) Vessel 



Wire Mesh (H) 



(2) Stopper 



Regulator 




Indicator 



Jar (A) 



Side View 
(Cross-section) 



(3) Indicator and Scale 



25 



H I |IHI I HUHullMiiHH»|»l»piH|mn»ii|u ii| n ii |ini[i iii 



■Tube (C) 



V 



Scale (D) 



(4) Pressure Regulator 



To fit vessel 

Almost any container (A) from a 
vial, to a test tube, to a jar 
will suffice. It must be a 
convenient size for the organism 
to be studied - a liter jar 
would not be used for small 
insects - and should have a 
tight-fitting lid or stopper. 

Depending on what vessel is 
used, the stopper (B) could be 
a two-hole rubber stopper or a 
tight-fitting screw cap with 
two holes drilled in for glass 
tubing. If a jar lid is used, 
the openings must be sealed with 
clay or paraffin after tbe 
indicator and pressure regulator 
have been inserted to prevent 
gas leak. Seal the underside, 
also. 

Bend a piece of glass tubing 
(C) at a 90° angle as indicated. 
Cement a paper scale (D) to the 
long arm, and add a drop of 
colored detergent solution to 
serve as an indicator. 

This is a piece of glass tubing 
(E) , topped with a section of 

rubber tubing (F) and a plug 
(G) . To regulate the position 

of the indicator, one simply 

releases the plug for a short 

period of time . 



-246- 



(5) Wire Mesh 




Fold to 
This Shape 



Cut the wire mesh (H) slightly 
larger than the diameter of the 
vessel. Bend the ends down to 
form a support on which the 
organism will be placed. 



c. Notes 

(i) Ifone wishes to study the oxygen uptake per unit time of an animal, a 
COn absorber such as KOH should be placed in the vessel under the wire mesh 
support. As the animal respires, Op is taken up and pressure in the tube falls, 
causing the bubble to move toward the vessel. Ifone knows the size bore in the 
tubing, then one can compute the volume of gas being exchanged by noting the dis- 
tance that the indicator moves per unit time. 

(ii) Transpiration may be measured by removing the pressure regulator from the 
top and inserting a broad-leaved plant cutting into the opening and sealing the 

joint with clay. Fill the 



Plant- 




Indicator 



Vessel Filled 
with Water 



container with water. Have the 
indicator bubble start at the 
open end of the sidearm tube. 
Allow the water to reach room 
temperature before setting the 
indicator bubble . 



Volumeter Used as a 
Transpirometer 



-247- 



C. FERMENTATION TUBES 



CI. Balloon Fermentation Tube 




(2) Balloon 



(1) Vial 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Vial 

(2) Balloon 

b. Construction 

(1) Vial 



(2) Balloon 



c. Notes 



Qll I tems Required 



Medicine Vial, Test Tube, 
or Small Bottle (A) 

Balloon (B) 



Dimensions 

50 ml capacity 

To fit vial opening 



Any small container (A) with a 

mouth narrow enough to stretch 

the open end of the balloon 
over will suffice. 

Fit the open end of the balloon 
(B) over the bottle. 



(i) Fill the vial with a yeast-sugar solution before attaching the balloon. 
As C0 5 is given off, it collects in the balloon from which it can be taken for 
analysis . 



-248- 



C2 . Durham Fermentation Tube 




Q 



^v 



(1) Jar 



(2) Vial 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Jar 

(2) Vial 

b. Construction 

(1) Jar 



(2) Vial 



C. Notes 



Qll I tems Required 



Wide-mouthed Glass Jar 
or Beaker (A) 

Medicine Vial or Test 
Tube (B) 



Dimensions 

500 ml capacity 

50 ml capacity 



Any larqe wide-mouthed jar (A) 
or beaker will do. It must be 
large enough so that the small 
vial (B) can be covered com- 
pletely with fermenting solu- 
tion. 

The vial (B) should easily fit 
inside the jar where it can be 
completely submerged in 
solution. 



(i) Fill both the jar and vial with a sugar-yeast solution. Place a finger 
over the open end of the vial, and invert it into the solution in the jar. As 
carbon dioxide is given off, some will be collected in the vial. This is useful 
for measuring relative amounts and rates of CCL production. 



-249- 



C3. Syringe Fermentation Tube 



(4) Syringe 





(3) Vent Tube 



(2) Rubber Stopper 



(1) Fermenting Bottle 



a. Materials Reguired 

Components Qtl 

(1) Fermenting Bottle 1 

(2) Rubber Stopper 1 

(3) Vent Tube 1 



b. Construction 

(1) Fermenting Bottle 



(2) Rubber Stopper 



Items Required 
Wide-mouth Jar (A) 

Z-Hole Rubber Stopper (B) 
Glass Tube (C) 
Rubber Tube (D) 

Plastic Syringe (E) 



Dimensions 

300-500 ml capacity 

To fit fermenting 
bottle opening 

6 cm long, . 5 cm 
outside diameter 

100 cm long, . 5 cm 
inside diameter, 25- 
50 ml 

25-50 ml capacity 



Select a large glass or plastic 
container (A) with a wide mouth. 

A two-hole rubber stopper (B) is 
needed to seal the bottle 
opening. 



-250- 



(3) Vent Tube 



(4) Syringe 



Bend the glass tube (C) to a 
right (90°) angle and insert it 
into one of the holes in the 
rubber stopper (B) . Attach the 
rubber tubing (D) to the other 
end of the glass tube. 

Insert the syringe nozzle (E) 
into the remaining hole of the 
stopper . 



c. Notes 



(i) One method of use for the syringe fermentation tube is as follows: Seal 
off the vent tube with a clamp or wood plug. Put about 250 ml of yeast solution 
in the fermenting bottle and put a known amount and concentration (e.g., 25 ml of 
0.1 M) of glucose solution in the syringe. Inject the sugar water into the yeast 
solution and collect the carbon dioxide given off in the syringe. 

(ii) Since it is difficult to accurately measure the amount of gas given off by 
the method described in (i) above, a further refinement is as follows: 

Connect the free end of the vent 
tube to a U-tube manometer (see 
VIII/D1) . Fill the fermenting 
bottle with yeast solution, and 
add a measured amount of sugar 
water. As carbon dioxide is 
given off, continually raise 
the syringe plunger so as to 
keep the two columns of the 
manometer equal height. Con- 
tinue this until gas is no 
longer evolved. When the gas 
has stopped evolving, the 
amount of gas trapped in the 
syringe will be a very accurate 
measure of the total amount of gas given off since use of the manometer insures 
that pressure in the rest of the system is maintained at the original level. 




Fermentation Tube and 
Manometer Combination 



-251- 



D. MANOMETER 



Dl. Manometer 




(1) Stand 



(2) "U" Tube 
(3) Scale 



a. Materials Required 
Components 
(1) Stand 



(2) "U" Tube 



Qll I tems Required 

1 Wood (A) 

2 Wood (B) 
2 Wood (C) 



2 



Glass Tubing (D) 



(3) Scale 



1 Rubber Tubing (E) 

4 Fine Wire (F) 
1 Graph Paper (G) 



Dimensions 
75 cm x 8 cm x 2 cm 
30 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm 
4 cm x 4 cm x 2 cm 

60 cm long, 0.75 cm 

outside diameter, 

. 5 cm inside diameter 

50 cm long, 0.7 cm 
inside diameter 

8 cm long 

40 cm long, 2 cm wide 



-252- 



b. Construction 
(1) Stand 




Nail two pieces of wood (B) 
together at right angles to 
form the base of the stand. 
Nail the sguare blocks (C) 
under the upper board to pro- 
vide stability. Finally, nail 
the other board (A) into an 
upright position on the base. 
Drill four pairs of small holes 
(0.2 cm in diameter) into the 
upright in such a position that 
each pair of holes will be in 
line with the position of the 
"U" tube when it is in place. 



*0^. w-4-H 



(2) "U" Tube 



"T 



60 






-~> Glass 
^ Tubes (D) 



^ 


/^—- Rubber 
Tube (E) 


Wire 


(F) 


I"* - Stand (A 


xgy 


^* Glass Tube 



Heat one of the pieces of glass 
tubing (D) about 4 cm from one 
end and bend it to a right (90°) 
angle. Attach the rubber 
tubing (E) to the end of each 
piece of glass tubing (D) . 
Fasten this "U" tube to the 
stand upright (A) by passing the 
fine wires (F) around the tubing, 
through the holes in the upright, 
and twisting the wires tight to 
hold the tubes in place. Do 
not fasten the straight tube 
too tight in order to allow it 
to slide up and down to adjust 
the height of the indicator 
liquid, 



Top View 



-253- 



(3) Scale 



Glue or tape a piece of graph 
paper (G) between the two tubes 
to serve as a scale. Suitable 
scales can also be made by hand 
with plain paper and a rule. 



c. Notes 



(i) Use the manometer to detect and measure changes in pressure. To do so, it 
must be half filled with an indicator solution like colored water (use food co lor- 
ing or ink) which serves as well as anything as an indicator. in normal usage, a 
rubber tube is used to connect the manometer to a closed system in which the 
pressure is changing (e.g., a jar containing a yeast-sugar solution or a jar con- 
taining a respiring animal with KOH to absorb the COn given off. With the yeast 
solution, pressure in the jar will increase as the yeast oxidize the sugar. See 
VIII/C3 for further detail. In the case of the respiring animal, pressure will 
decrease as it takes up 0« and gives up COp which is taken up by the KOH.) . As 
pressure changes, the indicator solution wi 11 move up or down depending on the 
direction of the pressure change. 

(ii) A detailed, specific example of the use of the manometer is as follows: 

Drill a hole in the bottom of a plastic medicine vial. This hole needs to 
be large enough to insert a short piece of glass tubing (5 cm long) . Attach a 
piece of rubber tubing (100 cm) to the glass tube, and insert the glass tube into 
the hole in the bottom of the vial. Seal the joint with melted wax from a candle. 
Stretch a rubber membrane or piece of toy balloon over the open end of the vial 
and fasten it securely with a string or rubber band to hold the membrane on the 
vial. 



Vial 



Rubber Tube 




Wire 



•Rubber 
Membrane 



Side View 



Attach the end of the rubber tubing to the bent piece of glass tubing on the 
manometer "U" tube. Slide the straight tube up or down to make the height of the 
indicator solution the same in both tubes. Place the rubber membrane against the 
carotid artery of the throat. A pulse can be seen by the rythmic rise and fall 
of the indicator solution. (See illustration on next page.) 



-254- 




(iil) The manometer may be made from a single piece of glass tubiftg by bending it 
in a flame to a 180° angle. While this eliminates the need for a rubber tube, it 
also eliminates the possibility of adjusting the heights of the indicator solution. 

(iv) Further instruction in the use of the manometer may be found in the 
Nuffield O-Level Biology, Teacher ' s Guide I U p 34 , and the BSCS Blue Version 
text, p L8, L95, among other sources. 



-255- 



E. CHROMATOGRAPHY APPARATUS 



El. Chromatographic Device 



!1) Test Tube 




w 



(2) Paper Hoi der 




(3) Paper 



Solvent 



a. Materials Required 
Components 

(1) Test Tube 

(2) Paper Holder 

(3) Paper 

(4) Solvent 

b. Construction 

(1) Test Tube 

(2) Paper Holder 



Qu Items Required 

1 Test Tube (A) 

1 1-Hole Stopper ( 

1 Paper Clip (C) 

1 Filter Paper (D) 



Acetone (E) 
Petroleum Ether (F) 




Dimensions 

15 cm long, 2 cm 
diameter 

To fit test tube 



1 or 2 cm shorter 
than the length of 
the test tube 

2 ml 
23 ml 



Use a rack or holder to support 
the test tube (A) . 

Open up the paper clip (C) and 
cut it as shown. A short piece 
of wire can be bent to the same 
shape, too. Punch the U-shaped 
piece of clip or wire through 
one end of the paper (D) and 
force the ends of the wire up 



-256- 



(3) Paper 



Solvent 



into the one-hole stopper (B) 
until it is held fast. 

Use standard filter paper (D) or 
chromatography paper if it is 
available. Cut it about 1 . cm 
wide . 

Mix the acetone (E) and petro- 
leum ether (F) and add the 
mixture to the test tube. 



c. Notes 



(i) This chromatographic device is used to separate plant pigments. To prepare 
the sample of pigments, grind several heavily pigmented plant leaves together with 
some fine sand and about 5 ml of acetone. When thoroughly ground, filter this 
mixture through filter paper. Alternatively, heat several finely chopped leaves 
in about 5 - 10 ml of alcohol in a water bath. Do not heat the alcohol directly. 
Heat this mixture until the liquid is dark green. 

Avoid both touching the surface of the paper with the fingers (oil affects 
the results) and having the paper touch the table where the pigment's to be placed. 
Thus, support the paper strip between two pencils or other small objects. About 
1 cm from one end of the paper, place a small drop of pigment. This is most 
easily done with a fine-pointed pipette or a hypodermic syringe. When the first 
drop is dry, add another. Try to make the spot as small and as densely colored 
as possible. At least four drops should be placed one atop the other. 

Make a notch in the paper on each side of the spot to mark its position. 
Attach the paper to the wire and put the wire into the stopper. Insert the paper 
holder in the test tube so that the end of the paper is in the solvent with the 
spot about . 5 cm above the level of the liquid. It may be necessary to adjust 

the paper holder to keep the 




Pigment Bands 



H 



Original Spot of Pigment 



Finished Chromatogram 



paper at the proper level. When 
the upper level of the solvent 
has soaked into the paper almost 
to the paper holder wire, re- 
move the chromatogram and allow 
it to dry. The bands of color 
can be studied when the chroma- 
togram is thoroughly dry. A 
number of excellent references 
exist describing additional 
exercises and information for 
chromatography . 



-257- 



I X. MULTIPURPOSE SYRINGES 

Disposable plastic syringes afford a variety of uses in biological studies. A 
£w of these will be given in this section. Additionally, syringes can be used as 
pipettes, burettes, etc., and for many of the functions normally taken by test tubes. 
They are potentially one of the most useful items in the laboratory. All syringes in 
this chapter are to be used without their needles. The categories given below have 
been arrived at according to the function of the syringe within the system. 

Readers with special interest in disposable syringes are referred to Paul D. 
Merrick, Experiments with Plastic Syringes, and two articles by Andrew Farmer in the 
School Science Review . 

A. INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEM S 

In these devices, disposable syringes are used for accurately injecting or extract- 
ing precise amounts of materials into or out of closed systems. 

B. COLLECTION APPARATU S 

Here, syringes are used to collect gases in measurable quantities. 

C. REACTION CHAMBER 

In tteidevice, the syringe itself is used as the container for the reactions. 
P. RESPIROMETERS 

Two versions of respirometers fashioned from plastic syringes are given. 



-267- 



B2 . Seedling Gas Collection Device 



O 



Gyp 





(1) Syringe 



a. Materials Reguired 
Components 
(1 ) Syringe 



b. Construction 
(1) Syringe 



Qll I tems Required 

1 Syringe (A) 

1 Beaker (B) 

1 Rubber Tubing (C) 



10 



Day-old Bean Seedlings (D) 



Dimensions 

35-50 cc 

50-100 ml 

5 cm long, 0.4 cm 
diameter 



Fasten the rubber tubing (C) to 
the nozzle of the syringe (A) 
and place the bean seedlings 
(D) in the barrel of the syringe. 
Next, fill the beaker (B) with 
water and put the end of the 
tubing in the water to prevent 
gas from escaping from the 
syringe . 



-268- 



C. Notes 

(i) Day-old bean seedlings carry on only respiration. Thus, the gas collected 
in the syringe after a period of six hours will be primarily carbon dioxide (C0„), 
This can be shown by injecting the collected gas into a solution of limewater in 
which a white precipitate will be found. No reaction will occur if normal air is 
injected into the limewater. This same experiment can be done using insects. 



-277- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



A number of texts have proved to be extremely valuable references to the 
Inexpensive Science Teaching Equipment Project, and these are listed below. 

American Peace Corps, Science Teachers Handbook, 



(Hyderabad, India: American Peace Corps, 1968) . 

This handbook contains many ideas for improvising 
science teaching equipment. 

Association for Science Education, The School Science 

Review, (London: John Murray) . 

A quarterly journal containing articles on 
science experiments and equipment in all the 
sciences at all school levels. 

Association for Science Education, The Science Master's 

Book , (London: John Murray) . 

Part 2 of Series 1 and 2, and Part 3 of Series 3 
and 4 of The Science Master's Book c ontain articles 
from The School Science Review d ealing with 
experiments and equipment in biology. 

Knudsen, Jens W., Biological Techniques, (New York: Harper 

and Row, 1966) . 

An excellent reference for those persons interested 
in collecting, preserving, and illustrating animals 
and plants . 

Merrick, Paul 0., Experiments with Plastic Syringes, 

(San Leandro, California: Educational Science Consultants, 1968). 

This book and accompanying materials form a 
good basis for developing curriculum materials 
based on disposable plastic syringes. 

Morholt, Evelyn, Paul F. Brandwein, and Alexander Joseph, 

A Sourcebook for the Biological Sciences, (New York: Harcourt 

Brace, and World, 1966) . 

This book gives many ideas and methods concerned 
with the day-to-day teaching of biology. 

The UNESCO Sourcebook in Science Teaching, (Paris, France: 

UNESCO, 1972) . 

This book, recently revised, contains many simple 
ideas for teaching science at a relatively 
elementary level. 



-278- 



In addition to the above texts, the materials from a large number of projects 
in the files of the International Clearinghouse on Science and Mathematics Curricular 
Developments at the University of Maryland have also been particularly valuable. 
Further details of these projects, and the three listed below, may be found in: 

The Seventh Report of the International Clearinghouse on 

Science and Mathematics Curricular Developments 1970, (College 

Park, Maryland: University of Maryland, 1970) . 

This is a source of information on curriculum 

projects throughout the world including 

project director, materials available, publishers, 

etc. The Eighth Report will be available in late 

1972. 

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). 

This is the major United States project concerned 
with the biological sciences at the secondary 
level. One publication, Innovations in Equip- 
ment and Techniques in the Biology Teaching Laboratory, 
(Boston: D. C. Heath, 1964) is especially useful 
to those interested in equipment development. 

FUNBEC, Science Education Projects for Primary, High School 
and College Level . 

A Brazilian project, FUNBEC has developed an 
excellent series of inexpensive science kits 
including some dealing with biology. 

Nuffield Foundation, Nuffield Biology. 

The Nuffield projects are the major British 
curriculum pro jects in science. Expecially 
interesting to the secondary biology teacher 
and administrator are the "O-level" and 
"A-level" material. 



-279- 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Air Composition Device 

Alcohol Burner, Modified 

Alcohol Burner, Simple 

Ammeter, Hot Wire 

Ammeters (See Galvanometers) 

Anesthetizing Chamber 

Aperture/Slit Combination 

Aquarium, Breeding 

Aquarium, Jug or Carboy 

Aquarium, Plastic Bag 

Aquarium, Quickly Made Demonstration 

Aspirator 

Aspirator 

Baermann Funnel 

Balance, Compression Spring 

Balance, Current 

Balance, Equal Arm 

Balance, Extending Spring 

Balance, Micro- 

Balance, Pegboard 

Balance, Rubber Band 

Balance, Simple Beam 

Balance, Single Pan 

Balance, Soda Straw 

Balance, Spring 

Balance, Spring Lever 

Ball -and- stick Models 

Basket Sieve 

Bath, Sand 

Bath, Water or Steam 

Battery, Simple 

Beaker 

Beating Sheet 

Beehive Shelf 

Bell Jar 

Berlese Funnel 

Bi-metal Strip 



Page 
CHEM/266 
CHEM/40 
CHEM/38 
PHYS/255 

BIOL/261 
PHYS/113 
BIOL/147 
BIOL/146 
BIOL/148 
BIOL/145 
BIOL/103 
CHEM/117 

BIOL/114 

PHYS/12 

PHYS/261 

PHYS/24 

PHYS/9 

PHYS/22 

PHYS/17 

PHYS/5 

PHYS/8 

PHYS/32 

PHYS/20 

PHYS/36 

PHYS/2 

CHEM/193 

CHEM/127 

CHEM/188 

CHEM/189 

PHYS/185 

CHEM/109 

BIOL/101 

CHEM/173 

CHEM/111 

BIOL/117 

CHEM/59 



-280- 



Bird Trap, Potter 
Blowpipe for Charcoal Block 
Bottle, Specific Gravity 
Bottle, Wash 
Bottom Sampler 
Box Trap, Simple 
Bulb Holder with Bulb 
Burette 

Burette and Ring Stand with Attachments 
Burner, Candle 
Burner, Charcoal 
Burner, Fuel System for GdS- 
Burner, Gas 

Burner, Modified Alcohol- 
Burner, Simple Alcohol- 
Butterfly Net 

Cage, Ant Observation 

Cage, Cockroach 

Cage, Cylinder 

Cage, Glass 

Cage, Glass Jar 

Cage, Housefly 

Cage, Jar 

Cage, Wire 

Cage, Wooden Frame 

Candle Burner 

Carbon Dioxide Production Chamber 

Cart, Elementary 

Cart, Heavyweight 

Cart, Lightweight 

Cell, Chemical 

Cells, Dry Cell Holder with 

Centrifuge 

Centrifuge, Hand Drill 

Chamber, Transfer 

Charcoal Burner 

Charles' Law: Volume/Temperature Device 

Chemical Cell 

Chromatographic Device 

Chromatography Apparatus, Liguid-Column 



BIOL/126 

CHEM/191 

CHEM/69 

CHEM/114 

BIOL/82 

BIOL/119 

PHYS/191 

CHEM/61 

CHEM/90 

CHEM/35 

CHEM/36 

CHEM/43 

CHEM/49 

CHEM/40 

CHEM/38 

BIOL/94 

BIOL/173 

BIOL/163 
BIOL/167 

BIOL/176 

BIOL/159 

BIOL/165 

BIOL/169 

BIOL/185 

BIOL/180 

CHEM/35 

BIOL/269 

PHYS/61 

PHYS/75 

PHYS/66 

PHYS/177 

PHYS/180 

CHEM/153 

CHEM/149 

BIOL/226 

CHEM/36 

CHEM/252 

PHYS/177 

BIOL/255 

CHEM/237 



-281- 



Chromatography Device, Horizontal Paper 

Chromatography Device, Horizontal Paper 

Chromatography Device Horizontal Paper 

Chromatography Equipment, Vertical Paper 

Chromatography Equipment, Vertical Paper Strip 

Circuit Board 

Clamp, Wooden Pinch 

Clamp, Wooden Screw 

Cleaner, Test Tube 

Clock, Classroom 

Clock, Water 

Collapsible Heating Stand 

Coil with Cores, Multipurpose 

Composition of Air Device 

Conductance Device 

Conductance Device, Constant Volume 

Condenser 

Cone Sieve 

Cover Slip, Glass Slide and 

Crystalline Packing Models 

Culture Flask 

Current Balance 

Decade Resistor 

Deflagrating "Spoon" 

Demonstration Thermometer 

Dessicator 

Diffraction Holes 

Diffusion Chamber 

Diffusion Device, Gas 

Diffusion Device, Liquid 

Dish, Petri 

Dissecting Needles 

Dissecting Pan 

Distillation Apparatus, Condenser 

Distillation Apparatus, Simple 

Double Bond Structures 

Dredge 

Dropper 

Dropper 

Dropper /Pipette 



CHEM/224 

CHEM/226 

CHEM/228 

CHEM/230 

CHEM/234 

PHYS/195 

CHEM/78 

C HEM/ 80 

CHEM/179 

PHYS/52 

PHYS/44 

CHEM/88 

PHYS/235 

CHEM/266 

CHEM/270 

CHEM/273 

CHEM/138 

CHEM/126 

BIOL/30 

CHEM/217 

BIOL/214 

PHYS/261 

PHYS/209 

CHEM/177 

CHEM/57 

CHEM/181 

PHYS/137 

BIOL/258 

CHEM/255 

CHEM/254 

CHEM/113 

BIOL/39 

BIOL/51 

CHEM/138 

CHEM/136 

CHEM/207 

BIOL/60 

BIOL/49 

CHEM/66 

CHEM/242 



-282- 



Dry Cell Holder with Cells 
Dryer, Electric Lamp 
Drying Tower 
Dynamo/Motor 

Elasticity Device 
Electrolysis Apparatus 
Electroplating, Mirrors and 
Enzymatic Reaction Chamber 
Expansion Device, Gas 

Fermentation Tube, Balloon 

Fermentation Tube, Durham 

Fermentation Tube, Syringe 

Filter 

Filter Flask, Suction- 

Flame Test Wire 

Flask Generator (Gas) 

Flask, Light Bulb 

Flask, Suction-Filter 

Flasks, Volumetric 

Forceps 

Forceps 

Fuel System for Burners, Gas 

Funnel, Baermann 

Funnel, Berlese 

Funnel, Glass Bottle 
Funnel, Separatory 

Galvanometer, Elementary Moving Coil 

Galvanometer, Elementary Tangent 

Galvanometer, Moving Coil 

Galvanometer, Repulsion Type 

Galvanometer, Tangent 

Galvanometer with Multipurpose Coils, Moving Coil 

Galvanometer with Shunts, Moving Coil 

Galvanometer with Shunts, Tangent 

Gas Burner 

Gas Burner, Fuel System for 

Gas Collection Device, Plant 

Gas Collection Device, Seedling 

Gas Diffusion Device 



PHYS/180 
CHEM/185 
CHEM/183 
PHYS/217 

PHYS/102 
CHEM/145 
PHYS/116 
BIOL/263 
PHYS/103 

BIOL/247 

BIOL/248 

BIOL/249 

PHYS/128 

CHEM/129 

CHEM/176 

CHEM/165 

CHEM/107 

CHEM/129 

CHEM/68 

BIOL/48 

CHEM/72 

CH EM/43 

BIOL/114 

BIOL/117 

CHEM/110 

CHEM/132 

PHYS/266 

PHYS/246 

PHYS/285 

PHYS/249 

PHYS/272 

PHYS/292 

PHYS/296 

PHYS/276 

CHEM/49 

CHEM/43 

BIOL/265 

BIOL/267 

CHEM/255 



-283- 



Gas Expansion Device 

Gas Generator, Flask 

Gas Generator, Kipp's 

Gas Generator, Simple, and Collecting Apparatus 

Gas Production and Collection Device 

Gas Reaction Chamber 

Gas Solubility Device/Reaction Rate Chamber 

Gauze, Wire 

Generator, Ml'crO- 

Geometric Structures, Models 

Glass, Measuring 

Glass, Watch 

Glassware, Light Bulb 

Glassware Techniques and Accessories 

Grappling Bar 

Grappling Hook 

Growth Chamber, Plant 

Heating Shelf 

Heating Stand, Collapsible 

Holder, Multi-purpose Design 

Holder, Test Tube 

Hydraulic Press 

Hydrometer 

Incubator, Egg 

Incubator, Microorganism 

Indicator, Displacement Type Oxidation 

Indicator, Membrane Type Oxidation 

Indicator, Oxidation Rate 

Inoculating Needles 

Insect Collector, Night Flying 

Insect Spreading Board 

Interference Strips 

Jar, Bell 

Killing Jars 

Kinetic Theory Model 

Kipp ' s Generator 

Kymograph 



Lenses and Prisms, Optical 
Lens with Holder 



PHYS/103 

CHEM/165 

CHEM/167 

CHEM/163 

CHEM/245 

CHEM/268 

CHEM/250 

CHEM/82 

CHEM/249 

CHEM/215 

CHEM/64 

CHEM/112 

CHEM/109 

CHEM/1 

BIOL/87 

BIOL/85 

BIOL/155 

CHEM/83 
CHEM/88 
CHEM/73 
CH EM/76 
PHYS/96 
PHYS/108 

BIOL/200 

BIOL/219 

CHEM/260 

CHEM/258 

CHEM/262 

BIOL/218 

BIOL/105 

BIOL/99 

PHYS/138 

CHEM/1 11 

BIOL/96 
CHEM/220 
CHEM/167 
BIOL/234 

PHYS/121 
PHYS/130 



-284- 



Light Bulb Glassware 

Light Bulb Glassware, Rack for 

Light Bulb Glassware, Stand for 

Light Source 

Liquid-Column Chromatographic Apparatus 

Liquid Diffusion Device 

Magnetic Field Apparatus 

Magnetic Field Apparatus with Multipurpose Coils 

Magnetizing Coil and Magnets 

Magnets 

Magnets, Magnetizing Coil and 

Magnifier, Illuminated Hand 

Magnifier, Water Filled 

Magnifying Glass, Water Bulb 

Manometer 

Masses, Box of 

Membrane-type Oxidation Indicator 

Measuring Glass 

Metal Sheet Shelf 

Microbalance 

Micro-generator 

Microscope, Adjustable 

Microscope, Glass Stage 

Microscope, Hand-Held 

Microscope, Match Box 

Microtome, Hand 

Mirrors and Electroplating 

Model, Kinetic Thoery 

Models, Ball-and-stick 

Models, Crystalline Packing 

Model Units, Molecular 

Mortar and Pestle 

Motor/Dynamo 

Motor, Simple 

Moving Coil Galvanometer 

Moving Coil Galvanometer with Multipurpose Coils 

Moving Coil Galvanometer with Shunts 

Multipurpose Coil with Cores 

Multipurpose Design Holder 

Multipurpose Stand 



CHEM/107 
CHEM/100 
CHEM/102 
PHYS/111 
CHEM/237 
CHEM/254 

PHYS/238 

PHYS/241 

PHYS/231 

CHEM/125 

PHYS/231 

BIOL/7 

BIOL/2 

BIOL/3 

BIOL/251 

PHYS/30 

CHEM/258 

CHEM/64 

CHEM/74 

PHYS/22 

CHEM/249 

BIOL/24 

BIOL/14 

BIOL/19 

BIOL/21 

BIOL/35 

PHYS/116 

CHEM/220 

CHEM/193 

CHEM/217 

CHEM/198 

CHEM/120 

PHYS/217 

PHYS/212 

PHYS/2185 

PHYS/292 

PHYS/296 

PHYS/235 

CHEM/73 

CHEM/98 



-285- 



Needles, Inoculating 
Net, Butterfly 
Net, Dip 
Net, Lift 
Net, Plankton 

Optical Screen with Holder 
Optical Board and Accessories 
Oxidation Indicator, Displacement Type 
Oxidation Indicator, Membrane Type 
Oxidation Rate Indicator 

Pendulum, Simple 

Pestle, Mortar and 

Petri Dish 

Pipette 

Pipette /Dropper 

Pipette, Transfer 

Plankton Net 

Plant Growth Chamber 

Plant Press (Field Type) 

Plant Press (Laboratory Type) 

Press, Hydraulic 

Prisms and Lenses, Optical 

Pulse 

Pump 

Rack for Light Bulb Glassware 

Rack, Bamboo Test Tube 

Rack, Wooden Test Tube 

Rate Indicator, Oxidation 

Reaction Chamber, Gas 

Reaction Rate Chamber/Gas Solubility Device 

Rectifier, Silicon 

Rectifier (2 Plate) , Sodium Carbonate 

Refraction Model Apparatus 

Relaxing Jar 

Reptile Hook 

Resistor (Carbon) , Variable 

Resistor, Decade 

Resistor (Nichrome) , Variable 

Respirometer 



BIOL/218 

BIOL/94 

BIOL/54 

BIOL/71 

BIOL/65 

PHYS/124 
PHYS/119 
CHEM/260 
CHEM/258 
CHEM/262 

PHYS/50 

CHEM/120 

CHEM/113 

CHEM/67 

CHEM/242 

BIOL/224 

BIOL/65 

BIOL/155 

BIOL/140 

BIOL/142 

PHYS/96 

PHYS/121 

PHYS/49 

CHEM/243 

CHEM/100 

CHEM/103 

CHEM/105 

CHEM/262 

CHEM/268 

CHEM/250 

PHYS/168 

PHYS/162 

PHYS/126 

BIOL/98 

BIOL/132 

PHYS/202 

PHYS/209 

PHYS/204 

BIOL/270 



-286- 



Respirometer 

Ring and Burette Stand with Attachments 

Ripple Tank 

Ripple Tank Accessories 

Sand Bath 

Scalpel, Razor 

Scalpel, Strapping 

Scissors 

Screen, Hand 

Screen with Holder 

Screw Clamp, Wooden 

Seine, Two-Man 

Separatory Funnel 

Shelf, Beehive 

Shelf, Heating 

Shelf, Jar Cage 

Shelf, Metal Sheet 

Shunts, Tangent Galvanometer with 

Shunts, Moving Coil Galvanometer with 

Sieve, Basket 

Sieve, Cone 

Sieve, Soil Organism 

Single Bond Structures 

Slide and Cover Slip, Glass 

Slit, Adjustable Single 

Slit/Aperture Combination 

Slits, Fixed Single and Double 

Slits, Multiple 

Snare 

Soil Organism Sieve 

Source, Light 

Spatula 

Spatula, Test Tube Cleaner or 

Specific Gravity Bottle 

Specific Gravity Device 

"Spoon', Deflagrating 

Spreading Board, Insect 

Spring Balance 

Spring Balance, Compression 

Spring Balance, Extending 



BIOL/273 
CH EM/90 
PHYS/81 
PHYS/90 

CHEM/188 

BIOL/43 

BIOL/41 

BIOL/45 

BIOL/ 56 

PHYS/124 

CHEM/80 

BIOL/68 

CHEM/132 

CHEM/173 

CHEM/83 

BIOL/161 

CHEM/174 

PHYS/276 

PHYS/296 

CHEM/127 

CHEM/126 

BIOL/110 

CHEM/203 

BIOL/30 

PHYS/136 

PHYS/113 

PHYS/134 

PHYS/133 

BIOL/ 130 

BIOL/110 

PHYS/111 

CHEM/178 

CHEM/179 

BHEM/69 

PHYS/107 

CHEM/177 

BIOL/99 

PHYS/36 

PHYS/12 

PHYS/9 



Stain Bottle 

Staining Vessel 

Stand, Collapsible Heating 

Stand for Light Bulb Glassware 

Stand, Multipurpose 

Stand with Attachments, Ring and Burette 

Steam or Water Bath 

Sterilizer 

stick Models, Ball-and- 

Still, Water 
Stoichiometry Device 
Strapping Tripod 
Strip, Bi-metal 
Stroboscope 

Structures, Double Bond 
Structures, Geometric 
Structures, Single Bond 
Structures, Triple Bond 
Suction-Filter Flask 
Sun Dial 
Switch 

Tangent Galvanometer 

Tangent Galvanometer, Elementary 

Tangent Galvanometer with Shunts 

Tank, Ripple 

Techniques and Accessories, Glassware 

Temperature/Volume Device: Charles' 1 Law 

Terrarium, Glass 

Terrarium, Simple 

Test Tube Cleaner or Spatula 

Test Tube Holder 

Test Tube Rack, Bamboo 

Test Tube Rack, Wooden 

Test Wire, Flame 

Thermometer, Demonstration 

Thermostat 

Timer, Ticker Tape 

Tower, Drying 

Transformer, Iron Wire Core 

(6 volt output, 120 volt mains) 



BIOL/33 

BIOL/31 

CHEM/88 

CHEM/102 

CHEM/98 

CHEM/90 

CHEM/189 

BIOL/215 

CHEM/193 

CHEM/141 

CHEM/263 

CHEM/86 

CHEM/59 

PHYS/93 

CHEM/207 

CHEM/21 5 

CHEM/203 

CHEM/213 

CHEM/129 

PHYS/41 

PHYS/193 

PHYS/272 

PHYS/246 

PHYS/276 

PHYS/81 

CHEM/1 

CHEM/252 

BIOL/153 

BIOL/151 

CHEM/1 79 

CHEM/76 

CHEM/1 03 

CHEM/1 05 

CHEM/1 76 

CHEM/57 

BIOL/207 

PHYS/56 

CHEM/1 83 

PHYS/140 



•288- 



Transformer, Sheet Iron Core 

(12 volt output, 120 volt mains) 

Transformer, Variable Output 
(120 volt mains) 

Trap, Funnel 

Trap, Piling 

Trap, Potter Bird 

Trap, Simple Box 

Trap, Soil Insect 

Triple Bond Structures 

Tripod, Strapping 

Tripod, Tin Can 

Tripod, Wire 

Tweezers 

Units, Molecular Model 

Vacuum Apparatus 

Vasculum* 

Vertical Paper Chromatography Equipment 

Vertical Strip Paper Chromatography Equipment 

Vivarium 

Voltmeters (See Galvanometers) 

Volume Determinator 

Volume/Temperature Device: Charles' Law 

Volumeter 

Volumetric Flasks 

Wash Bottle 

Watch Glass 

Water Glass 

Water or Steam Bath 

Water Still 

Wing Tip 

Wire Gauze 

Wire Tripod 

Wormery, Box 

Wormery, Jar 



PHYS/147 

PHYS/153 

BIOL/76 

BIOL/73 

BIOL/126 

BIOL/119 

BIOL/112 

CHEM/213 

CHEM/86 

CHEM/84 

CHEM/87 

CHEM/72 

CHEM/198 

PHYS/99 

BIOL/136 

CHEM/230 

CHEM/234 

BIOL/191 

PHYS/105 
CHEM/252 
BIOL/244 
CHEM/68 

CHEM/141 

CHEM/112 

BIOL/90 

CHEM/189 

CHEM/141 

CHEM/54 

CHEM/82 

CHEM/87 

BIOL/171 

BIOL/168